Location: Papunya and outstations, Haasts Bluff, Areyonga, Yuendumu, Docker River (Menning and Nash 1981).
1. Names of the language and different spellings that have been used:
Bindubi (Capell, AIAS)
Luritja (Oates (1975) AIAS, Hansen)
See Hansen and Hansen (1977,1975a), and Heffernan (1984a) for the usage of the name Luritja. Apparently it is a name used generally by the Arrernte (Aranda) people of Central Australia for the Western Desert group. It has also been adopted by many different Western Desert groups who have taken up residence on Arrerntic land (Ian Green, p.c.). The term does not identify a specific dialect; for instance, Papunya Luritja is not the same dialect as Alice Springs Luritja.
According to Ian Green (p.c.), "Papunya Luritja has developed from Eastern Pintupi, shows influence from Warlpiri and Arrernte, and shares some grammatical/morphological features with the southern Western Desert dialects Yankunytjatjarra and Pitjanytjatjarra rather than Pintupi. Eastern Pintupi was spoken in the Kintore-Ilypili region, and the Pintupi described by Hansen and Hansen was spoken in the area west of Kintore (see Hansen and Hansen 1977:21)". See also Yulparija, Wangkajunga and Kukatja.
The Yumu language is said to be closely related to Pintupi and to Kukatja, but there is very little information on it. Alternative spellings are: Jumu (Tindale, O'Grady, Elkin, Fry), Yumi (Roheim), Yumu (Cleland & Johnston, Wurm, AIAS).
2.Classification of the language:
Pama-Nyungan family, Western Desert group, Wati subgroup
Identification codes:AIATSIS: C10 (Pintupi),C11 (Yumu)
Capell (1963): C7 (Pintupi), C16 (Yumu)
Oates (1975): 56.9a (Pintupi), 56.9b (Yumu)
3. Dialects of the language:
Desert languages have an avoidance style as well as the everyday style.
No other information.
4. Present number and distribution of speakers:
Some speakers are to be found in the Kimberley region, in Halls Creek and Balgo, but most live in the NT, principally at Papunya and outstations, Haast's Bluff, Mt Liebig area, Kintore and outstations, Kiwirrkurra; also some at Areyonga, Yuendumu, Docker River, Nyirrpi, Hermannsburg, Glen Helen (particularly Luritja).
Black (1983): 800
Green (1986 p.c.): about 1,000
5. People who have worked intensively to record the language:
Ken Hansen (since 1960s, Papunya)
John Heffernan (since early 1980s, Papunya)
Ian Green (since 1984, Papunya)
6. Practical spelling system:
A practical orthography has been established, and used in the Papunya school; it was devised by Hansen and Hansen. This is the same system that is used in Pitjantjatjarra and Yankunytjatjarra, and similar to the Kukatja variant of the South Kimberley orthography except that underlining is used to indicate retroflexion, instead of an r before the letter.
7. Word lists:
Hansen and Hansen (1977)
A Pintupi/Luritja text series is under way. The texts will be mainly edited classroom texts, but audiotapes and transcripts will also be available. The Papunya Literature Production Centre will publish the series.
9. Grammar or sketch grammar:
Hansen and Hansen (1975a)
10. Language programmes:
A bilingual education programme has been running for some years in the Papunya school.
11. Language learning material:
IAD Pintupi intensive course
12. Literature in the language:
Too many to mention here. The Papunya Literature Production Centre has already about 200 publications to its credit. A bilingual newsletter is also produced by the Centre. The following is a short selection of teaching material available.
Hansen, K.C. and L.E. Hansen (1974a) Teachers' guide to Pintupi primers. Sections 1, 2. NT Department of Education.
Hansen, K.C. and L.E. Hansen (1974b) Wakantjaku 1-4 [For the purpose of writing]. NT Department of Education.
Hansen, K.C. and L.E. Hansen (1974c) Wangka walytja 1-4 [Our own talk]. NT Department of Education.
Heysen, S. (1985) Piipa yini tampirrpa tjutatjarra wakalpayi. Nampa kutju. Papunya Literature Production Centre, Papunya.
Morris, K. (1985a) Rodeo. Papunya Literature Production Centre, Papunya.
Morris, K. (1985b) Ula kutjarra yankupayi. (The boys who go hunting.) Papunya Literature Production Centre, Papunya.
Morris, K. (1985c)Yara mulyatanku puluka mantjintja. (Stealing cattle.) Papunya Literature Production Centre, Papunya.
Phillipus, C. (1985) Tjukurrpa yanamarra, pintapintarringutja. (The tale of the caterpiller that became a butterfly.) Illustrated by H. Clarke, Papunya Literature Production Centre, Papunya.
Rrurrambu, G. (1985) Tjapirunya tjakipirrinya. (Jabiru and emu.) Papunya Literature Production Centre, Papunya.
Tjupurrula, P. (1985) Tjampitjinpa taraantarringu. (Early contact experiences near Mt Leibig.) Translated by M. Roberts; illustrated by D. Nelson, Papunya Literature Production Centre, Papunya.
There are also many religious materials, including a translation of the New Testament, and a volume of translations from the Old Testament:
Bible, Old Testament (1981) Katutjalu watjantja yirrititjanu. Lutheran Publishing House, Adelaide.
Bible, New Testament (1981) Katujalu watjantja malatjanu, Bible Society of Australia, Canberra.
13. Material available:
Note that a great deal of material has been produced in Pintupi, of which the following is a small selection. Contact the Institute for Aboriginal Development in Alice Springs for more detailed information.
See also: AIAS Selected reading list, Central and Western Desert: The Aranda, Bidjandjarra, Bindubi, Waljbiri. 17p. mimeo.
(see section 5 (Bibliography) for annotations on the following works)
Burbidge, A.A., K.A. Johnson, P.J. Fuller and R.I. Southgate (1988) 'Aboriginal knowledge of the mammals of the Central Deserts of Australia', pp.9-39 in Australian Wildlife Research, Vol.15.
Cane, S.B. (1984) Desert camps: a case study of stone artefacts and Aboriginal behaviour in the Western Desert, PhD thesis, Australian National University, Canberra.
Cleland, J.B. and T.H. Johnston (1933) 'The ecology of the Aborigines of Central Australia', pp.113-124 in Royal Society of South Australia Transactions, Vol.57.
de Graaf, Mark (1976) Pintupi bibliography, MS, Alice Springs.
Ellis, C.J. (1984) 'Time consciousness of Aboriginal performers', pp.149-185 in J.C. Kassler and J. Stubbington, (eds) Problems and solutions: occasional essays in musicology presented to Alice M. Moyle, Hale and Iremonger, Sydney.
Hale, K.L.(n.d.a) Ikirinytyi (mother-in-law language in Luritja), MS.
Hansen, K.C. (1977) Questionnaire on the Western Desert languages, Pintupi.
Hansen, K.C. (1985) Translating for the Pintupi, mimeo, Nungalinya College, Darwin.
Hansen, K.C. and L.E. Hansen (1969) 'Pintupi phonology', pp.153-170 in Oceanic Linguistics, Vol.8, no.2.
Hansen, K.C. and L.E. Hansen (1975a) The core of Pintubi grammar, IAD, Alice Springs.
Hansen, K.C. and L.E. Hansen (1975b) Some suggestions for making the transition from Pintupi/Loritja reading to English reading, ts, SIL, Darwin.
Hansen, K.C. and L.E. Hansen (1975c) The sentence in Pintupi (First draft, 1970, SIL; Part 2, Aug. 1971, SIL, Darwin).
Hansen, K.C. and L.E. Hansen (1977) Pintupi and Luritja dictionary, IAD, Alice Springs.
Hansen, K.C. and L.E. Hansen (1979) Pintupi/Luritja kinship.
Hansen, K.C. and L.E. Hansen (with Tjampu Tjapaltjarri) (1980) Pintubi Kinship, Second edition, Institute for Aboriginal Development, Alice Springs (1st edition, 1974).
Heffernan, J. (1984a) Dialect change amongst the Eastern Pintupi, pp.5-16 in Australian Linguistics Society Conference Precirculation Papers, IAD, Alice Springs.
Heffernan, J. (1984b) Papunya Luritja language notes, Papunya Literature Production Centre, Papunya.
Heffernan, J. (1984c) [Papunya Luritja wordlist], MS.
Huttar, G.L. (1976) 'Notes on Pintupi phonology', pp.14-24 in Talanya, Vol.3.
Institute for Aboriginal Development and Summer Institute of Linguistics (1983) Pintupi language learning course, IAD/SIL, Alice Springs.
Moyle, R.M. (1979) Songs of the Pintupi: music in a central Australian society, AIAS, Canberra.
Murtonen, A. (1969) Pintupi statistical and comparative survey of an Australian Western Desert language, Department of Middle Eastern Studies, University of Melbourne. (Also cited as: Outline of a general theory of linguistics.).
Myers, F.R. (1976) 'To have and to hold': a study of persistence and change in Pintupi social life, PhD thesis, Bryn Mawr, University Microfilms Ann Arbor.
Myers, F.R. (1979) 'Emotions and the self: a theory of personhood and political order among Pintupi Aborigines', pp.343-370 in Ethos, Vol.7.
Myers, F.R. (1982a) 'Always ask: resource use and land ownership among Pintupi Aborigines of the Australian Western Desert', pp.173-195 in N. Williams and E.S. Hunn, (eds) Resource managers: North American and Australian hunter-gatherers, Westview Press for the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Boulder.
Myers, F.R. (1982b) 'Ideology and experience: the cultural basis of Pintupi life', pp.79-114 in N.C. Howard, (ed.) Aboriginal power in Australian society, University of Queensland Press, Brisbane.
Myers, F.R. (1986) Pintupi country, Pintupi self: sentiment, place, and politics among the Western Desert Aborigines, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London, and Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.
Myers, F.R. (1989) 'Burning the truck and holding the country: Pintupi forms of property and identity', pp.15-42 in E.N. Wilmsen, (ed.) We are here: politics of Aboriginal land tenure, University of California Press, Berkeley.
Raa, E. ten and S. Tod Woenne (1974) Research dictionary of the Western Desert language of Australia, Anthropology Department, UWA, Perth (ts and computer disk).
Roberts, M. (1975) Pintupi alphabet - adapted from the Warlpiri (constructed) by Ken Hale, 1p., ts, Yayayi.
Tindale, N.B. (1932) Journal of an expedition to Mt Leibig, Central Australia, to do anthropological research, August 1932, MS.
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