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About the author:
Bibliography of the South Asian Diaspora and East Africa:
an annotated bibliography
Andrew Mickleburgh firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr. Andrew Mickleburgh,
Lecturer in Sociology,
International Culture Studies Department,
Gyosie International College in the U.K.
Reading RG1 5QG
Bibliography of the South Asian Diaspora and East Africa
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-------- (1929). Report of the Commission on Closer Union for the
Dependencies in East and Central Africa (Hilton Young Commission).
London: HMSO, Cmd. 3234.
Includes Chapter 9 titled "The Indian Claim to a Common Franchise".
-------- (1931). Joint Committee on Closer Union in East Africa Vol.II
- Minutes of Evidence. London: HMSO.
The evidence of Rt. Hon. V.S. Srinivasa Sastri (Representative of the
Government Of India), P.V. Mehd (Uganda Indian Delegate), and V.V.
Phadke and A.B. Patel (Kenya Indian Delegates) are presented in pages
-------- (1934). Memorandum by the Indian National Association on the
Legislation Passed at the July (1934) Session of the Legislative
-------- (1947). Report by the India Delegation to East Africa on the
Proposed Immigration Restrictions in Kenya, Uganda, Tanganyika and
Zanzibar, 1946. New Delhi: Government of India Press.
-------- (1949). Report of the Select Committee on Indian Education.
Nairobi: Government Printer.
-------- (1950). Race Relations in East Africa: Perplexities of a
Plural Society. Round Table, 158, 140-145
-------- (1957). Apani Vasahat (Our Settlement). Ismaili Roshani,
-------- (1957). Racial Problems in Africa. Kenya After The Storm: The
Indians and Apartheid. British Survey n.s. 95.
-------- (1959). The Ismailis in East Africa: Small but Progressive
Community. East Africa Today.
-------- (1972). The Crisis of the Ugandan Asians. Race Relations
Bulletin, 35 - 38.
Four, monthly bulletins (September to December), documenting events
during the period of the expulsion. Includes detailed chronologies,
British Government policy, and the reaction of other nations,
including the number of Ugandan refugees individual countries were
prepared to accept.
-------- (1982). Debate Over The Role of Kenya Asians. Weekly Review
(Nairobi), 12 November, 3-16
-------- (1994). A Special Feature on A.B. Pant. Africa Quarterly, 34
First Indian High Commissioner to East Africa.
-------- (1997). Remember The Uganda Asians. London: Timewatch, BBC.
Videocasette 50 mins.
Recalls the expulsion of Asians from Uganda by Idi Amin.
Abbott, S. (1968). Profile of the Kenya Asians. Newsletter, Institute
of Race Relations. n.s. 2 (3), 124-128
Includes statistics relating to age and sex, family patterns, place
of birth and residence, religion, education, occupations and economic
Abidi, S. (1996). The Return of Asians to Uganda. Africa Quarterly, 36
Asian settlement, the Amin years, and the Asian and local response to
the NRM Government's efforts to attract Asians to Uganda as part of
the strategy of rehabilitation and market liberalization.
Abreu, C. J. (1974). Self-help in Education: The Contribution of
African and Asian Voluntary Organizations to the Development of
Education in Kenya, 1900-1973. M.Ed. dissertation, University of
Adalja, K. V. (1946). Indians and Local Government. Forward, July,
Adams, B. N. (1972). Minority Vulnerability and the Asians of Uganda.
Paper presented at the 1972 Meeting of the American Sociological
Association, New Orleans.
Adams, B.N. (1974a). The Kin Network and the Adjustment of the Ugandan
Asians. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 36, 190-195
Based on a sample of 387 Kampala Asians interviewed in 1971
concerning the influence of kinship on their reasons for being in
Kampala, their coping strategies and future plans at a time when
Uganda Asians were under considerable pressure from the Uganda
Government and many were leaving.
Adams, B.N. (1974b). Urban Skills and Religion: Mechanisms for Coping
and Defense Among the Ugandan Asians. Social Problems, 22 (1), 28-42
Adams, B.N. (1975). A Look at Uganda and Expulsion Through Ex-Ugandan
Asian Eyes. Kroniek van Afrika, 3, 237-249
Adams, B.N. & Bristow, M. (1978). The Politico-Economic Position
of Ugandan Asians in the Colonial and Independent Eras. Journal of
Asian and African Studies, 13 (3), 151-166
Draws on literature available at the time and interviews with
Ex-Uganda Asians living in Britain, India and Canada in late 1973.
Reviews Asian roles in Uganda
under British colonialism; their politico-economic position just
prior to the expulsion; and differences and similarities between the
economic situations of the various Asians religious communities.
Adams, B.N., Pereira, C. & Bristow, M. (1978). Ugandan Asians in
Exile: Household and Kinship in the Resettlement Crisis. International
Migration, 16 (2), 83-93
Based on interviews conducted between August 1973 and February 1974
with 1259 Asian household heads who fled Uganda to Britain, India and
Canada following the 1972 expulsion. Pre-expulsion Asian household
composition in Uganda and changes in household composition following
the move to the receiving country. Patterns of assistance from kin in
resettlement - mainly assistance with housing and the patrilineal bias
in the aid given. Variations between receiving countries are noted.
Adams, B.N. & Bristow, M. (1979). Ugandan Asian Expulsion
Experiences: Rumour and Reality. Journal of Asian and African Studies,
14 (3-4), 191-203
Adams, B.N. & Jesudason, V. (1984). The Employment of Ugandan
Asian Refugees in Britain, Canada and India. Ethnic and Racial
Studies, 7 (4), 462-477
Compares and contrasts employment of ex-Uganda Asians in Britain,
India and Canada in the first year or so following the expulsion.
Reasons why some did not attempt to find employment; why some who
sought work did not find it; how long it took to find employment; and
how the 'level' of employment in their new homes compared with their
employment in Uganda.
Adatia, A.K. & King, N.Q. (1969). Some East African Firmans of
H.H. Aga Khan III. Journal of Religion in Africa, 2, 179-191
The nature and purpose of firmans, including the insights offered by
firmans into the Imamate. Role of firmans issued by Aga Khan III in
uplifting the status of women and modernizing his followers in East
Africa through religion. Some discussion of the number of secessions
from the Ismaili community that occurred in East Africa during the
late 1800s and early 1900s.
Adoko, A. (1984). On the Need For Partnership: A Plea to Alien Former
Owners. Kampala: Africa Publishers Ltd.
Adoko, A. (1985). The Lea Affair: A British Diplomats Scandal. New
Aga Khan III Sultan Muhammad Shah. (1954). The Memoirs of Aga Khan.
Ahmed, G. (1997). Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. London: Precinct
Ahluwalia, D. (1995). Plantations and the Politics of Sugar in Uganda.
Describes the critical role of Asians in the development of the sugar
industry in Uganda, impact of the Asian expulsion on the industry,
return of former Asian owners and subsequent efforts at
Akampumuza, J. (1996). The Return of Asian Properties in Uganda: An
Analysis of its Legal and Political Aspects. L.L.M. dissertation,
Alibhai-Brown, Y. (1995). No Place Like Home: An Autobiography.
Alibhai-Brown, Y. (1997). Museveni in Neasden. Prospect, 25, 10
Report of a meeting in London between President Museveni and Ugandan
Asians who settled in Britain. Alibhai-Brown expresses wariness over
attempts to woo back Ugandan Asians. This article can be viewed in
full at: www.prospect-magazine.co.uk/highlights /museveni/index.html
Albuquerque, T. (1999). Goans of Kenya. Mumbai: Michael Lobo.
Aldrick, J. (1988). The Nineteenth Century Carved Doors of Mombasa and
the East African Coast (2 vols.). M.Litt. dissertation, Durham
Describes the role of Indian craftsmen. Illustrated with photographs
and drawings. Volume II includes an inventory of approximately 100
doors in Mombasa naming the original owner, frequenly Asian, wherever
possible. The earliest door with date inscribed is 1886, though others
are earlier dating to approximately 1830. In volume I there are a few
doors in Lamu and Zanzibar dating to the eighteenth century.
Aldrick, J. (1990). The Nineteenth Century Carved Wooden Doors of the
East African Coast. Azania, 25, 1-18
Aldrick, J. (1996). The Mombasa Sports Club 1896-1996, Centenary
Contains information on Asian pioneering sportsmen.
Alidina, S.L. (1890). A Guide to the Swahili Language in Gujarati
Characters, With English and Gujarati Translations. Bombay.
Alpers, E.A. (1976). Gujarat and the Trade of East Africa,
c.1500-1800. International Journal of African Historical Studies, 9
Aspects of the history of Gujarat, including the role of banias in
trade between Gujarat and the East African coast, the Portuguese, and
coastal towns of Gujarat - notably Diu.
Amiji, H. M. (1969). The Asian Communities. In J. Kritzeck & W.H.
Lewis (Eds.), Islam in Africa (pp.141-181). New York: Van
Detailed survey of important aspects of the religious and communal
organizations of the Ismaili Khojas, Bhoras and Ithna'asharis, and
the challenges facing these communities shortly after East African
countries gained Independence.
Amiji, H. M. (1971). Some Notes on Religious Dissent in Nineteenth
Century East Africa. International Journal of African Historical
Studies, 4, 603-616
Settlement, social and economic organization of Khojas, focusing on
Zanzibar. Background to and events during the mid-1800s that led to
the emergence of the Ithna-Asheri and Ismaili sects in the Shia Khoja
Amiji, H. M. (1975). The Bohras of East Africa. Journal of Religion in
East Africa, 5, 27-61
Amiji, H. M. (1982). Islam and Socio-Economic Development: A Case
Study of a Muslim Minority in Tanzania. Journal of the Institute of
Muslim Minority Affairs, 4 (1&2), 175-187
Amiji, H. M. (1983). The Asiatic Bias in the Historiography of the
East African Coast. Journal of African Studies, 10, 66-72
Amin, I. (1972). Speech Given by General Amin to the Asian Conference
held on the 8th December 1971 in the Uganda International Conference
Centre. East Africa Journal, February, 2-5
A memorandum by Asians in reply to Amin's address is found in the
Appendix to J. O'Brien (1972). Brown Britons.
Aminzade, R. (1998). The Politics of Race and Nation: Citizenship and
Africanization in Tanganyika. Department of Sociology, University of
Explores reasons why, despite the shared colonial legacy and bitter
divisions over, matters of race among African nationalists,
non-racial nationalism triumphed in
Tanganyika but not in Kenya or Uganda. Emphasizes the critical role
played by Nyerere in having rights and obligations of citizenship
defined in terms of territory rather than race, rejection of rapid
Africanization in favour of localization, and in trying to prevent
exclusionary policies towards the Asian population. Available at:
Amsden, A.H. (1970). Review of M. Singh, History of Kenya's Trade
Union Movement to 1952. The Journal of African History, 10 (3),
Anderson, J.N. (1964). The Ismaili Khojas of East Africa. Middle
Eastern Studies, 11 (4), 21-39
Examines the 1962 Ismailia Constitution.
Andrews, C.F. (1920). Indians in British East Africa. Young India. 3
Andrews, C.F. (1921). The Indian Question in East Africa. Nairobi:
Swift Press. (also published in Madras: G.A. Natesan & Co.)
Andrews, C.F. (c.1930). A Memorandum on the Kenya Lowlands Proposal.
Bombay: Imperial Indian Citizenship Association.
Andrews, C.F. (1934). The Zanzibar Crisis. Allahabad: Allahabad Law
Set against the background of the Great Depression, which contributed
to the view of many Europeans that East Africans could be helped most
by excluding Indians from certain types of trade. Andrews is critical
of the attempt to create a European monopoly in the Zanzibar clove
industry and of the repercussions that this had in other parts of
the East African economy. Also criticizes the Land Alienation
Ordinance which deprived Indians of the right to own agricultural
land in Zanzibar, except by special permission of the British
Andrews, C.F. (1935). The Indians of Zanzibar and East Africa.
Contemporary Review, 147, 684-691
Anon. (1968). Asians in East Africa. Africa Institute Bulletin, 6 (2),
Anon. (1968). Pio Gama Pinto, Independent Kenya's First Martyr
Socialist and Freedom Fighter. Nairobi: Pan African Press.
A booklet containing a dozen articles about Pio Gama Pinto published
after his assassination. Contributors include Oginga Odinga, Joseph
Murumbi and F.R.S. De Souza. A copy can be viewed at
Anon. (1968a). That Asian Exodus: Who's Responsible?. East African
Journal, April, 5-7
Argues Asians were much more affected than Europeans by Africanization
because of the characteristics of Asian employment and that this was
most immediately responsible for the Asian exodus from Kenya during
the 1960s. Attributes this to the system of social stratification
developed during the colonial period and the lack of efforts by Kenyan
politicians and Asians to correct this in the post-colonial period.
Suggests there will always be racial variety in Kenya and that it
important to exploit the benefits this can offer. Offers the opinion
that Ismailis have done no better than other Asian communities in
identifying with the ordinary Kenyan and predicts that Asian emigrants
will be worse off in their new homes than in Kenya.
Anon. (1970). Seminar on "Indians Abroad Asia and Africa": A Brief
Report. Africa Quarterly, 9(1), 4-14.
Anon. (1972). Uganda Crisis Grows. Africa Digest, 19 (57), 95-99
A collection of short reports on the background to the expulsion,
exodus, policy and public response in Britain, and African and Indian
Anon. (1973). A Uganda Diary. Transition, 42, 13-19
Written in September 1972, includes background to the expulsion,
preparations being made by departing Asians, and extracts from
newspaper articles written at that time.
Anon. (1973). Asians From Uganda in European Transit Camps. Migration
News, 22 (3), 23-24
Appanya, S.W. (1907). British Indians in East Africa. The Fortnightly
Review, 8, 595-598
Aranow, P.T. (1969). Alien Entrepreneurs: The Indians in Uganda,
1958-1968. B.A. dissertation, Harvard College.
Archer, L. & Chitnis, A. (1973). Green For Come: A Report on the
Re-housing and Settling of British Asians from Uganda in York and
District Between October 1972 and June 1973. York: York Community
Arya, Girls Senior School. (1960). Golden Jubilee Souvenir 1910-1960.
Nairobi: Zenith Printing Works.
Asani, A.S. (1994). The Impact of Modernization on the Marriage Rites
of the Khojah Ismailis of East Africa. Journal of Turkish Studies, 18,
Asian African Heritage Trust. (2000). The Asian African Heritage:
Identity and History. Nairobi, National Museums of Kenya and The Asian
African Heritage Trust.
Asian Parents Association. (1955). A Memorandum on Asian Education to
the Asians and Educational Authorities of Uganda. Kampala.
Atieno Odhiambo, E.S. (1974). The Political Economy of the Asian
Problem in Kenya, 1888-1939. Transafrica Journal of History, 4 (1),
Argues that the British colonial administration in Kenya created the
political and economic structures that caused the 'Asian Problem' to
take firm root. Discusses issues around which Asian protest
coalesced; the role of the EAINC and supp ort From the Indian National
Congress and Government of India. Argues that Asian political supp ort
for Africans at the time was more a consequence of self-interest
rather than altruism and did not impact on the image of the
'exploitative Asian' that the ordinary Kenyan had of Asians.
Atlantic Information Centre For Teachers. (1972). The Uganda Refugees:
a World Problem. London: Atlantic Education Publications.
Awori, W.W. (1946). African and Indian Co-operation in East Africa.
African World, October, 16-17.
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Bagenda, A. (1992). Returning Asian Businessmen 'Fleecing' Ugandans.
Drum, October, 11-14
Bagha, Y.A. (1970). History of the Memom Community in Mombasa. B.A.
dissertation, University of Nairobi.
Bahadur Singh, I. (1979). The Other India: The Overseas Indians and
Their Relationship with India: Proceedings of a Seminar, New Delhi:
Gulab Vazirani for Arnold Heinemann.
Balachandran, P. (1981). An Embattled Community: Asians in East Africa
Today. African Affairs, 80, 317-325
Baptiste, F.A. (1998). African Presence in India (I). Africa
Quarterly, 38(1), 75-90
Baptiste, F.A. (1998). African Presence in India (II). Africa
Quarterly, 38(2), 91-126
Barongo, Y.R. (1973). Uganda's Economic War and its Implications for
African Nationalism. African Studies Association of the West Indies
Bulletin, 6, 38-56
Barot, R. (1968). Dispute Settlement in a Hindu Community of Kampala.
M.A. Sociology dissertaion, Makerere University.
A study of various types of dispute and their settlement outside the
realm of national law in Bakuli, Kampala.
Barot, R. (1974). Varna, Nat-Jat and Atak Among Kampala Hindus. New
Community, 3 (1-2), 59-66
Barot, R. (1975). The Hindus of Bakuli. In. M. Twaddle (Ed.),
Expulsion of a Minority: Essays on Ugandan Asians, (pp. 70-80).
London: Athlone Press.
Beachey, R.W. (1996). A History of East Africa, 1592-1902,
International Library of African Studies Vol.3. London: Tauris.
Chapter 11: The Indians in East Africa
Becker, R. & Madhvani, N.(Eds.) (1973). Jayant Madhvani. London:
Essays and shorter tributes in honour of Jayant Madhvani, head of the
Madhvani family in Uganda at the time of his death, aged 49 years, in
1971. Includes information related to the Madhavani business empire,
Uganda economy and politics, and Madhvani philanthropic activities.
Benjamin, N. (1998). Trading Activities of Indians in East Africa
(with Special Reference to Slavery) in the Nineteenth Century. Indian
Economic and Social History Review (New Delhi), 35 (4), 405-420
Bennet, C. (1976). Persistence Amid Diversity: The Growth and Spatial
Distribution of the Asian Population of Kenya, 1903-1963. Ph.D.
thesis, Syracuse University.
Describes and maps the Kenya Asian population at intervals during the
colonial period in order to understand how it gained its magnitude and
spatial distribution at the time of Independence; and explains
characteristics of the Asian population in terms of the more general
economic, political and social development of colonial Kenya. In so
doing the thesis adds to understanding of the Asian contribution to
the settlement geography and general colonial development of Kenya.
Includes discussion of the constraints that restricted the
distribution of the Asian population at different times, including
restrictions on Asian ownership of agricultural land and racial
segregation in urban areas. References to many prominent Asian
personages and to the various Asian communities. The 18 tables and 43
figures contain interesting data not found elsewhere.
Bennett, G. (1954). India and Africa. International Journal, 9 (1),
Bennett, G. (1965). Settlers and Politics in Kenya. In V. Harlow &
E. Chivers (Eds.), History of East Africa Vol.2 (pp. 265-332). London:
Oxford University Press.
Berg, F.J. & Walter, B.J. (1968). Mosques, Populations and
Development in Mombasa. Hadith, 1, 47-100
Includes a lot of information about the Asian mosques in Mombasa and
an appendix showing census figures for Asians from 1505 to 1962.
Bernatizik, I. (1962). Was Machen die Inder in Afrika? Westernmanns
103 November, 67-73
Bhachu, P.K. (1981). Marriage and Dowry Among Selected East African
Sikh Families in the U.K.. Ph.D. thesis, University of London.
Bhachu, P.K. (1984). East African Sikhs in Britain: Experienced
Settlers with Traditionalistic Values. Immigrants and Minorities, 3
Bhachu, P.K. (1985). Twice Migrants: East African Sikh Settlers in
Britain. London: Tavistock.
Based on the author's Ph.D. thesis. Fieldwork carried out in Southall,
London between 1977 and 1978, and updated during 1981-83. Focuses on
the marriage patterns of Sikhs who migrated from India to East Africa,
and from there to the U.K. from the mid-1960s onwards. Argues the
community have been successful settlers in Africa and the U.K. Despite
an absence from India for over 100 years and lack of
"home-orientation", Bhachu found that the community were very
conservative and maintained many of the values and traditions their
family members migrated with in the early twentieth century -
including the marriage and dowry system.
Bhachu, P.K. (1986). Work, Dowry and Marriage Among East African Sikh
Women in the United Kingdom. In C.B. Brettell & R. Simon (Eds.),
International Migration: The Female Experience (pp. 229-240). Totowa
N.J.: Rowman and Allenhead.
Bhachu, P.K. (1988). Apni Marzi Kardhi, Home and Work: Sikh Women in
Britain. In. S. Westwood & P.K. Bhachu (Eds.), Enterprising Women:
Home, Work and Culture Among Minorities in Britain (pp. 76-102).
Bhachu, P.K. (1989a). The East African Sikh Diaspora: The British
Case. In G. Barrier & V. Dusenbery (Eds.), The Sikh Diaspora:
Migration and the Experience Beyond Punjab. Delhi: Chanakya
A "twice migrant" urban community of predominantly Ramgarhia Sikhs
who arrived in Britain mainly before the 1972 expulsion from Uganda.
Reasons for and consequences of a lack of a "myth of return".
Relationship with other Sikhs and South Asians in Britain, of whom
they are a part, but from whom they differ in fundamental ways.
Bhachu, P.K. (1989b). The East African Sikh Diaspora. Studies in
Sikhism and Comparative Religion, 8 (1), 153-172
Bharati, A. (1964a). The Indians of East Africa: A Survey of Problems
of Transition and Adaption. Sociologus, 14(2), 169-177.
Asian feelings of not being wanted, of insecurity and uncertainty in
the newly independent nations of East Africa. Factors that have
worked against East African Asian assimilation into the host
Bharati, A. (1964b). Problems of the Asian Minorities in East Africa.
Pakistan Horizon (Karachi), 17(4), 342-349.
Bharati, A. (1964c). Pressures and Reactions in the Asian Minority in
East Africa. Maxwell Overseas Centre Occasional Papers.
Bharati, A. (1965a). A Social Survey. In D.P. Ghai & Y.P. Ghai
(Eds.), Portrait of a Minority: Asians in East Africa, (pp. 13-64).
Nairobi: Oxford University Press.
Bharati, A. (1965b). Patterns of Identification Among the East African
Indians. Sociologus, 15 (2), 128-142
Self and externally ascribed identities of major Asian groups in East
Africa. Situational use of identity and claims by some Asians of
cultural identification with Africans. Suggests reasons why
inter-racial marriage has been rare. Argues
that most Asians who wish to have closer ties with Africans have
little idea of how this might be fostered.
Bharati, A. (1965c). Political Pressures and Reactions in the Asian
Minority in East Africa, Program of Eastern African Studies, Syracuse
University, Occasional Paper No.12.
Bharati, A. (1965d). Possession and Divination Among Lohana Hindus in
East Africa. Abstracts of the 63rd Annual Meeting of the American
Anthropological Association, 64, 8
Bharati, A. (1965e). The Asian Entrepreneur in East Africa. Paper
presented to the Annual Meeting of the African Studies Association,
Bharati, A. (1966). The Unwanted Elite of East Africa, Trans-Action
(St. Louis, Missouri), July-August, 37-41.
Bharati, A. (1967). Ideology and Content of Caste Among Indians in
East Africa. In B. Schwartz (Ed.), Caste in Overseas Indian
Communities (pp.283-319). San Francisco: Chandler.
Bharati, A. (1972). The Asians of East Africa: Jayhind and Uhuru,
Chicago: Nelson Hall.
Bharati, A. (1976). Ritualistic Tolerance and Ideological Rigour: The
Paradigm of Expatriate Hindus in East Africa. Contributions to Indian
Sociology, 10 (2), 317-339
Bhardwaj, P.P. (1994). After 22 Years of Exile, Asians Return to a
Different Uganda. Hinduism Today, December.
Bhardwaj, P.P. (1996). Hindus Stand Strong in Ancient Tanzania.
Hinduism Today, February.
Bhatia, Z.G. (1975). Social Change in the Ismaili Society of East
Africa, with Reference to Four Successive Aga Khans. B.Litt.
dissertation, University of Oxford.
Bhatia, P. (1973). Indian Ordeal in Africa. New Delhi: Vikas.
Written by an Indian High Commissioner to Kenya in the 1960s, who
perceived African chauvinism and White racism towards Asians.
Bhatt, P.M. (1976). A History of Asians in Kenya 1900-1970. Ph.D.
thesis, Howard University.
Bhatt, T.A. (1969). A Biographical Sketch of Indians in Africa.
Nairobi: United Africa Press.
Bhattacharya, D.K. (1970). Indians of African Origin. Cahiers D'Etudes
Africaines, 10 (40), 579-582
Bhavra, G. (1968). The Sikhs in East Africa. B.A. dissertation,
University College, Dar es Salaam.
Bhusan, K. (1993). Indians in Kenya. In J.K. Motwani, M. Gosine &
J. Barot-Motwani (Eds.), Global Indian Diaspora: Yesterday, Today and
Tomorrow (pp. 127-130). New York: Global Organization of People of
Biswas, A. (1991). India - Kenya Relations. Africa Currents, 13, 18-43
India's economic and social relations with Kenya 1947-1977, in the
context of the Non-Aligned Movement and South - South cooperation.
Biswas, S. (1992). Indo-Kenyan Political and Economic Relations.
Delhi: Kanishka Publishing House.
Bocock, R.J. (1971). The Ismailis in Tanzania: A Weberian Analysis.
British Journal of Sociology, 22 (4), 365-380
History, structure and beliefs of the Ismailis. Role of Aga Khan III
in establishing Ismailis as the pace-setter group among Asians in
East Africa. Concludes that Ismailism has elements that have a strong
affinity with modern commercial and professional activities, once Aga
Khan III had given the necessary orientation to Ismailis. Predicted
that preserving the Ismailis' own special identity in East Africa may
prove more difficult than preserving their position as a capitalist
group in the economy.
Bose, M. (1982). The Ugandan Asian Success Magic. New Society, 16th
Boute, J. (1965). La Demographie de la Branche Indo-Pakistanaise
d'Afrique. Louvaine: Societe Detudes Morales et Juridiques.
Brennan, J. (1999). South African Nationalism in an East African Context:
The Case of Tanganyika, 1914-1954. Comparative Studies of South
and the Middle East, Vol.19 (2), 24-39
Bristow, M. (1976). Britain's Response to the Ugandan Asians Crisis:
Government Myths versus Political Resettlement Realities. New
Community, 5, 265-279
Bristow, M. (1979). Ugandan Asians: Racial Disadvantage and Housing
Markets in Manchester and Birmingham. New Community, 7, 203-216
Bristow, M., Adams, B.N. & Pereira, C. (1975). Ugandan Asians in
Britain, Canada and India", Some Characteristics and Resources. New
Community, 4 (2): 155-166
Reviews six variables affecting settlement difficulty experienced by
Asians expelled from Uganda in 1972 who settled in Britain, India and
Canada. Includes detailed estimates of the numbers and destinations of Ex-Uganda
Asians. Original statistics used to challenge some of the stereotypes
of Uganda Asians. Argues that Canada deliberately selected young,
well-educated professionals - especially Ismailis and that Asians who
went to Britain were at a considerable settlement disadvantage,
exacerbated by the fact that the British Government only made limited
efforts on their behalf.
Bristow, M. & Adams, B.N. (1977). Ugandan Asians and the Housing
Market in Britain. New Community, 6 (1-2), 65-77
Brockway, A.F. (1951). Racialism in East Africa: Where the Colour Bar
Works Three Ways. Forward (Glasgow), 13th January.
Brown, W.T. (1971). A Pre-Colonial History of Bagamayo: Aspects of the
Growth of an East African Coastal Town. Ph.D. thesis, Boston
Chapter 6 titled "The Indian Factor in the Growth of Bagamayo" begins
with the growth of the Indian communities in Bagamayo in the second
half of the nineteenth century and the increasing attention directed
towards inland trade. Reviews each of the largest Indian communities
in Bagamayo - their religion, settlement, size and leading
representatives. Discussion of the life of the influential Ithnashari
Haji Nasser Virji Muraj Haji provides insights into the lives of
Asians in German East Africa. Concludes with a detailed case study of
Bujra, J. (1992). Ethnicity and Class: The Case of East African
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References to the East Africa Provincial Education Councils for
Ismailis, and cooperation between Ismailis and other Muslims promoted
through the East African Muslim Welfare Association.
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Set against the background of the Immigration Act 1968, criticizes
the British Government's policies towards Kenya Asian migrants to
Britain during the late 1960s. Includes background to Kenya's Asian
population and to the Immigration Act 1968, Kenyanization, India's
attitudes towards expatriate Asians including those who settled in
India after leaving Kenya, and the aftermath of the Immigration Act in
East Africa and other parts of the Commonwealth.
Cable, V. (1969c). Help for the Kenya Asians. World Today, 25 (3),
Offers practical suggestions to governments to help ease the problem
that Kenya's Asians faced, of being simultaneously rejected by three
of the countries in which they could possibly live - Kenya, Britain
Campbell, H.G. (1975a). The Political Struggle of Africans to Enter
the Market Place in Uganda 1900-1970. M.A. dissertation, Makerere
Explores reasons for the dominance of Asian businessmen in Uganda and
the African response. Chapter 8 includes a brief discussion of the
Campbell, H.G. (1975). The Expulsion of the Asian Petty Bourgeoisie
In. H. Campbell, Four Essays in Neo-colonialism in Uganda: The
Military Dictatorship of Idi Amin (pp. 7-18). Toronto: Afro-Caribbean
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Brief references to the Indian population of Zanzibar, the Indian
Association and (Indian) Muslim League.
Carter, F. (1969). The Asian Press in Kenya. East Africa Journal, 6
Cavendish-Bentinck, F. (1943). Indians and the Kenya Highlands.
Nairobi: East African Standard Ltd.
Chand, A. (1972). A Study on the Dynamics of a Minority Group as it
Adjusts to External Pressure in the Society - with Special Reference
to the Asians in Uganda, Kampala, Makerere University, Sociology
Department Working Papers No. 121.
Chandaria, I.D. (1963). The Development of Entrepreneurship in Kenya.
B.A. dissertation, Harvard College.
Focuses on the role of local Asian capitalists in Kenya's
industrialization process during the 1950s.
Chattopadhyaya, H. (1970). Indians in Africa: A Socio-economic Study,
Calcutta: Bookland Private Ltd.
Survey of South Asians in South Africa (Part I) and East Africa (Part
II). Part II includes Asian settlement, social organization, race
relations, trade and commerce and education. A number of useful
Chege, M. (1996). Colour Lines: In Kenya. Transition, 70, 20-35
Chege, M. (1998). Introducing Race as a Variable into the Political
Economy of Kenya Debate: An Incendiary Idea. African Affairs, 97,
A response to Himbara's 1994 book. Acknowledges the importance of
Kenyan Asian capitalists, but suggests that Kenya's economic
achievements and the destruction that the followed the 'miracle
years' was more race neutral than Himbara and others claimed.
Chhangani, R.C. (1972). Expulsion of Uganda Asians and International
Law. Indian Journal of International Law, 12, 400-4008
Chittick, N. (1980). Indian Relations with East Africa Before the
Arrival of the Portuguese. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 2,
Chivers, T. (1985). Is Expulsion Rational? Dealing With Unwanted
Minorities as Issues of Rationality. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 8 (8),
Based on a comparison of the expulsion of Jews in medieval England
and of Asians in Uganda.
Chopra, V.S. (1968). Economic Relations Between India and East Africa.
Africa Quarterly, 8 (4), 369-375
Description of trade patterns between India and Kenya, Tanzania and
Uganda during the 1960s.
Chowdry, S.P. (1964). Kenya and the Immigrants. Africa Quarterly, 4
Cohen, A. (1957). Uganda's Progress and Problems. African Affairs, 56
Governor of Uganda from 1952 to 1957. Includes the prediction that
African concern over the strong position of Asians in certain spheres
of the economy would diminish as African participation in business
and government increased.
Cole, P. (1973). Ugandan Asians and Employment. London: Runnymede
Colonial Office (1910). Report of a Committee on Emigration from India
to the Crown Colonies and Protectorates. London, Cmd. 5192
Colonial Office (1923). Indians in Kenya. London: HMSO, Cmd. 1922
A White Paper also known under other titles, including the Devonshire
White Paper, after the Secretary of State for the Colonies at the
Colony and Protectorate of Kenya (1948). Methods of Compiling Indices
Affecting Cost of Living Allowances of Europeans and Asians in Kenya
Colony and Protectorate. Nairobi: Government Printer.
Committee on the Relief of Distress Among Europeans and Asians (1950).
Report on Relief of Distress Amongst Europeans and Asians. Nairobi:
Community Relations Commission (1974). One Year On: A Report on the
Resettlement of Refugees from Uganda in Britain. London: Community
Cook, D. & Rubadiri, D. (Eds.) (1971). Poems From East Africa.
Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers.
Eighteen contributions by Asians, including Bahadur Tejani and Jagit
Couper, K. & Lakhani, H. (1971). 'Stet' - The Unemployed, Homeless
and Destitute: A Report on the Britsh Asians in Uganda. London: Joint
Council for the Welfare of Immigrants.
Cowen, M. & MacWilliam, S. (1996). Indigenous Capital in Kenya:
The 'Indian' Dimension of the Debate. Institute of Development
Studies, University of Helsinki. Helsinki: Interkont Books.
Cumpston, I.M. (1953). Indians Overseas in British Territory,
1834-1954. London: Oxford University Press.
Cunningham, C. (1973a). The Uganda Resettlement Board and Hiving-Off:
Some Possibilities for Future Research. Public Administration, 51
Cunningham, C. (1973b). The Work of the Uganda Resettlement Board. New
Community, 2 (3), 261-267
Curtis, K.R. (1992). Co-operation and Cooption: The Struggle for
Market Control in the Bukoba District of Colonial Tanganyika.
International Journal of African Historical Studies, 25 (3), 505-538
Struggle over control of the coffee industry waged by African coffee
growers, Asian traders, colonial officials and African cooperative
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Dadachanji, B.K. (1945). The Indian National Congress and Indians
Overseas. Bombay: S.M. Nesatkhan.
Dahlberg, F. (1976). The Asian Community with Special Reference to
Lira. Sociologus, 26 (1), 29-42
Dale, G. (1920). The Peoples of Zanzibar. Universities Mission to
Mainly deals with the religious beliefs and practices of the various
groups of inhabitants of Zanzibar.
Dale, I.R. (1955). The Indian Origin of Some African Cultivated Plants
and African Cattle. Uganda Journal, 19 (1), 68-71
Das, N. (1927). Indians in Kenya. The Indian Review, 28, 246-248
Da Silva, H. (1969). The Goans in Uganda: Their History,
Characteristics and Attitudes. Dar es Salaam, University of Dar es
Davies, C. (1972). Asians of East Africa. Quest, 77, July - August,
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Autobiography of a Kenyan surgeon who was born into a Memon family in
India and trained in England.
Dawood, Y. (2000). Return to Paradise. Nairobi: East African
Fiction. Traces the fortunes of an Asian family who settled in
England after the 1972 expulsion from Uganda.
Daya, B. (1963). The "Evil Eye" in an Asian Community in East Africa.
Kampala: EAISR Conference Papers, Section C.
Social structure and settlement of Shai Imami Ismailis in East
Africa. Social functions served by the belief that anyone when acting
from greed, envy, or hatred is capable, if they so wish, of casting
his or her 'evil eye' onto others who are in close proximity, causing
illness and other misfortune. Use of female diviners to determine
that a person's misfortune is due to the 'evil eye' and to perform
rites necessary to lift the 'evil eye'. Suggests the belief and rites
were most likely adapted by East African Ismailis from Hindus, to
cope with new situations facing them.
De Kiewiet, M.J. (1955). History of the Imperial British East Africa
Company 1876-1895. Ph.D. thesis, University of London.
Includes discussion of the situation of Indians in East Africa during
the brief Period of IBEAC rule.
Delamere, H.C. & Archer, C.K. (1921). Memorandum on the Case
Against the Claims of Indians in Kenya. Nairobi.
Delf. G. (1963). Asians in East Africa, London: Institute of Race
Relations, Oxford University Press.
A short overview of the lives of the 300, 000 Asians in living in East
Africa at about the time the three countries moved to Independence..
Derrett, J.D. (1958). Hindu Law in Kenya. All India Reporter, January,
Derrett, J.D. (1962). East Africa: Recent Legislation for Hindus. The
American Journal of Comparative Law, 11 (3), 396-403
Derrett, J.D. (1963). Hindu Law in East Africa. In J.D. Derrett,
Introduction to Modern Hindu Law (pp. 535-556). Oxford: Oxford
Derrett, J.D. (1969). Comments With Reference to Hindu Law. East
African Law Journal, 5 (1), 21-53
Derrett, J.D. (1970). Hindus and Hindu Law in Kenya. East African Law
Journal, 6 (2), 159-162
Desai, D.B. (1920). Indians in East Africa. The Indian Review, 21,
Desai, D.B. (1923). Indians in Kenya (British East Africa). The Indian
Review, 24, 354-358
Desai, N. (1993). The Asian Influence in East Africa. In J.K. Motwani,
M. Gosine & J. Barot-Motwani (Eds.), Global Indian Diaspora:
Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow (pp. 118-126). New York: Global
Organization of People of Indian Origin.
Desai, R.H. (1963a). Indian Immigrants in Britain. London: Oxford
Includes references to East African Asians who by the 1960s were
joining small Gujarati communities in England, especially London.
Desai, RH. (1963b). Leadership in an Asian Community. Kampala: EAISR
Conference Papers, Section B.
Asian associations, leadership and communal rivalry in an un-named
Desai, R.H. (1965). The Family Business and Enterprise Among the
Asians in East Africa. Kampala: EAISR Conference Papers.
Desai, R.H. (1966a). On Joking Relationship Among the Asians of East
Africa. Kampala: Makerere College, Sociology Department Working
Use of joking among Asians belonging to different sub-communities in
a small Ugandan town to express their distinct identities and relieve
the tension of being merely viewed as 'Asian'.
Desai, R.H. (1966b). Afro-Asian Relationships in Small Towns. In P.
Fordham (ed.), Racial and Communal Tensions in East Africa (pp.
95-103). East African Institute of Social and Cultural Affairs,
Contemporary African Monographs Series No.3. Nairobi: East Africa
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Ph.D. thesis, London School of Economics.
Dhillon, P. (2000). Kijabe: An African Historical Saga. Fayetteville,
North Carolina: PREP Publishing.
Diggs, I. (1956). The Indian in East Africa. The Crisis, 63 April,
Dines, M. (1973). Cool Reception. New Community, 2 (4), 380-383
Dittman, F. (1973). Kulter und Leistung: Zur Frage
d.Leistungsdispositionen bei Luo und Indern in Kenia. Breitenbach.
Donley-Reid, L.W. (1984). The Social Uses of Swahili Space and
Objects. Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University.
Based on the architecture of Lamu town, includes description of the
many Asian contributions to the coastal culture.
Don Nanjira, D.D. (1976). The Status of Aliens in East Africa: Asians
and Europeans in Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya, New York: Praeger.
Doro, M.E. (n.d.). The Indian Question in Kenya Colony: A Case Study
in the Politics of Plural Societies. Mimeo, Kampala, Makerere
Analyzes, chronologically, the crisis of the Indian Question as
Kenya's status changed between the years 1920 to 1923 from a
Protectorate to a Crown Colony. Includes the argument that in the
plural society of the time it was inevitable that the government
favoured European settlers in policy making.
Dossa, P.A. (1997). Reconstruction of the Ethnographic Field Sites:
Mediating Identities: Case Study of a Bohra Muslim Woman in Lamu
(Kenya). Women's Studies International Forum, 20 (4), 505-515
Dubey, A.K. (2000). India and Experience of Indian Diaspora in Africa.
Africa Quarterly, 40 (2), 69-92
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in Kenya: Brigadier General Philip Wheatly and 'Direct Action'.
Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 17 (3), 349-373
Duncan, C. (1968). An Experiment in Non-Racialism: Some Research Notes
on the Asian Minority in Tanzania. Dar es Salaam, Institute of Public
Dwarkadas, J. (1923). Kenya Question. The Asiatic Review, 19 (59),
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East African Indian National Congress (1952). Petition of the East
African Indian National Congress to the King to Disallow Religious
Separate Electorates. Nairobi: EAINC.
East Africa Royal Commission (1955). 1953-1955 Report, London: HMSO.
Includes discussion on demography, migration, employment and living
conditions of Asians in East Africa.
Ehrenfels, U.R. (1959). Cultural Needs of Indians in East Africa.
Indo-Asian Culture, 8 (2), 169-178
Ehrlich, C. (1956). The Economy of Buganda, 1893-1903. Uganda Journal,
20 (1), 17-26
Brief references to Indian settlement and commerce. Refers to
Allidina Visram as"perhaps the greatest single figure in the
economic history of East Africa." (pp.21)
Ehrlich, C. (1958). The Marketing of Cotton in Uganda, 1900-1950.
Ph.D. thesis, University of London.
Describes how the cotton industry became divided along racial lines -
indigenous cultivation and alien processing and marketing - and the
emergence of India as the principle source of capital,
entrepreneurship and market for Uganda cotton.
Ehrlich, C. (1963). Some Social and Economic Implications of
Paternalism in Uganda. Journal of African History, 4 (2), 275-285
Includes brief comments about the view that African economic
education had been hindered by Indian immigrants, who also contributed little
to widening opp ortunities for Africans. Also discusses government
policy towards marketing of African produce and towards trade in
Ehrlich. C. (1965). The Uganda Economy 1903-1945. In V. Harlow &
E. Chivers (Eds.), History of East Africa Vol. 2. (pp. 395-475).
London: Oxford University Press.
Engholm, G. (1967). The Decline of Immigrant Influence on the Uganda
Administration 1945-52. Uganda Journal, 31 (1), 73-78
Enharo, P. (1972). Amin and the Asians. Africa, 14 (1), 13-18
Ennals, M. (1968). U.K. Citizens of Asian Origin in Kenya: An
Independent Survey. Nairobi.
Also appendix C in D. Steel (1969), No Entry, with additional comments
by Ennals on the original report.
Erwin, W.S. (1948). The Emergence of the Indian Problem in Kenya
Colony. M.A. dissertation, Washington University.
Esmail, A.A. (1972a). Satpanth Ismailism and Modern Changes with
Special Reference to East Africa. Ph.D. thesis, University of
Esmail, A.A. (1972b). Some Aspects of the History of the Ismailis in
East Africa. Nairobi: Annual Conference of the Historical Association
of Kenya Papers.
Esmail, A.A. (1975). Towards a History of Islam in East Africa. Kenya
Historical Review, 3 (1), 147-158
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Fernando, T. (1979). East African Asians in Western Canada: The
Ismaili Community. New Community, 7 (3), 361-368
Finn, M.C. (1998). When the Other is Another Other: British
Orientalism in an East African Context. Halle Institute Occasional
Paper, Department of History, Emory University.
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Introduction. British Journal of Sociology, 8, 291-295
Fitzgerald, M.L. (1971). Some Notes on the Religious Education of
Muslims in Uganda. Uganda Journal, 35 (2), 215-218
Includes references to the Ismaili and Ithna-asheri communities.
Fleuret, A. (1975). Social Organization and Adaption Among Sikhs in
Tanzania. Ph.D. thesis, University of California at Santa Barbara.
Foran, R. (1949). Indian Trading Practices in East Africa. The Crown
Colonist, May, 322-369
Fordham, P. (1966). Racial and Communal Tensions in East Africa.
Africa Contemporary Monographs No.3. Nairobi: East Africa Publishing
Contains sixteen articles, mostly concerning Asians, including four
written by Asians.
Fordham, P. & Wiltshire, H.C. (1963). Some Tests of Prejudice in
an East African Adult College. Race, 5 (2), 70-77
Describes the low levels of tolerance by Africans to Asians among a
sample of 333 adult students (7 non-Africans), drawn from throughout
Forster, P.G., Hitchcock, M. & Lyimo, F.F. (2000). Race and
Ethnicity in East Africa. London: Macmillan.
Chapter 5 is titled 'Asians in East Africa'.
Forrest, T. (1999). Le Retour des Indiens en Ouganda. Politique
Africaine, 76 Dec. 1999, 76-90
Frost, R.A. (1972). Trusteeship, Discrimination and Attempts to
Promote Interracial Cooperation in Kenya, 1945-1963. D.Phil. thesis,
Frost, R.A. (1979). Sir Philip Mitchell, Governor of Kenya. African
Affairs, 78 (313), 535-554
Furedi, F. (1974). The Development of Anti-Asian Opinion Among
Africans in Nakuru District, Kenya. African Affairs, 73 (292), 347-358
Role of the failure of government efforts to assist African traders
and contribution of European settlers to the development of
anti-Asian feelings. Boycotts of Asian businesses due to growing
conflicts between the aspirations of the African trading class and
the Asian monopoly over trade, causing anti-Asian sentiments to take
on a new political form.
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Gee, T. (1961). Uganda's Legislative Council Between the Wars. Uganda
Journal, 25 (1), 54-64 Includes discussion of the Asian struggle over
representation in the Legislative Council.
Ghai, D.P. (1963). Review of G. Delf, Asians in East Africa. Uganda
Journal, 27 (2), 241-242
Ghai, D.P. (1965). Economic Survey. In D.P. Ghai & Y.P. Ghai
(Eds.), Portrait of a Minority (pp. 91-112). Nairobi: Oxford
Ghai, D.P. (1970). The Buganda Trade Boycott: A Study in Tribal,
Political and Economic Development. In R. Rotberg & A. Mazrui
(Eds.), Protest and Power in Black Africa (pp. 755-770). New York:
Oxford University Press.
Ghai, Y. P. (1965a). The Asian Dilemma in East Africa. East African
Journal, March, 6-21
Ghai, Y. P. (1965b). The Future Prospects. In D.P. Ghai & Y.P.
Ghai (Eds.), Portrait of a Minority (pp. 129-152). Nairobi: Oxford
Ghai, Y.P. (1966). Prospects for Asians in East Africa. In P. Fordham
(Ed.), Racial and Communal Tensions in East Africa (pp. 9-26). East
African Institute of Social and Cultural Affairs, Contemporary African
Monographs Series No.3. Nairobi: East Africa Publishing House.
Ghai, Y.P. (1975). Amin and the Asians. Times Literary Supp lement, 4th
Ghai, D.P. & Ghai, Y.P. Eds. (1965a). Portrait of a Minority:
Asians in East Africa, Nairobi: Oxford University Press.
Socio-economic and political surveys of Asian populations in East
Africa, set against the historical background of Asian settlement.
Ghai, D.P. & Ghai, Y.P. (1965b). Asians in East Africa: Problems
and Prospects. Journal of Modern African Studies, 3 (1), 35-51
Ghai, D.P. & Ghai, Y.P. (1969). Asians in Tanzania: Problems and
Prospects. In K.E. Svendsen & M. Teisen (Eds.), Self-reliant
Tanzania (pp. 91-110). Dar es Salaam: Tanzania Publishing House.
Pages 205-208 of this book reprint an article by J. K. Nyerere titled
"Socialism is not Racialism", first published in the Nationalist, 14th
Ghai, D.P. & Ghai, Y.P. (1971). Asians in East Africa: Problems
and Prospects. In A. Gupta (Ed.), Indians Abroad: Asia and Africa
(pp 191-210). New Delhi: Orient Longman.
Ghai, Y. P. & Ghai, D.P. (1971). The Asian Minorities of East and
Central Africa, London, Minority Rights Group, Report 4.
Ghose, S.K. (1971). Memoirs of a Visit to East Africa in the 1950s.
Africa Quarterly, 10 (4), 329-339
Discusses political, social and economic conditions of the time.
References to many prominent East African Asians.
Gilbert, A.J. (1979). Closer Union in British East Africa: The
Controversy, 1923-1931. Ph.D. thesis, University of Bristol.
Glyn-Jones, R. (1973). A Report on the Experiences of Ugandan Asian
Families Settled in Blackburn. Blackburn: Community Relations Council.
Goel, O.M. (1969). Review of H.S. Morris, The Indians in Uganda: Caste
and Sect in a Plural Society. Journal of African and Asian Studies, 2
Goldthorpe, J. (1958). Outlines of East African Society. Kampala,
Department of Sociology, Makerere College.
Chapter Four presents an overview of the history, demography and
social organization of Asians in East Africa. Other chapters include
references to Asians and race relations, social class and urban life.
Gondwe, Z.S. (1996). Prohibition Against All Forms of Racial
Discrimination: Policy, Law and Reality. Lesotho Law Journal, 9 (2),
Suggests that the culture of racial tolerance that has existed in
Tanzania is being strained by the increasing economic disparity
between Asian and African Tanzanians.
Gopal, A. (1968a). Review of H.S. Morris, The Indians in Uganda: Caste
and Sect in a Plural Society. Africa Quarterly, 8 (3), 302-304
Gopal, A. (1968b). Asian Exodus From Kenya. Shakti, 5, June, 2-4
Government of Uganda. (1975). Uganda's Economic War. Kampala:
Publications Section, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
The Amin Government's version of the Asian expulsion, allocation of
Asian property, and measures to deal with post-expulsion economic
problems. Includes Amin's 6th December 1971 Address to the Asians;
Mid-night Address to the Nation of 17th December 1972; and August 1973
Address to the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in Ottawa.
Government of Uganda (1989). Manual on the Divestiture of Departed
Asians' Custodian Board Properties. Kampala: Ministry of Finance.
Gray, V.W. (1928). The Problem of the East Indians in the Kenya Colony
and Protectorate. M.A. dissertation, University of Chicago.
Gregory, R.G. (1962). Sidney Webb and East Africa: Labour's Experiment
with the Doctrine of Native Paramountcy. Berkley: University of
Gregory, R.G. (1963). The Evolution of an Indian Policy Toward Africa.
AICC Economic Review, February 15, 11-16
Gregory, R.G. (1966). Churchill's Administration of East Africa: A
Period of Indian Disillusionment, 1906-1922. Journal of Indian
History, 44 (2), 397-416
Gregory, R.G. (1971). India and East Africa: A History of Race
Relations Within the British Empire 1890 - 1939, London: Oxford
Focuses primarily on Kenya and what the European settlers saw as 'The
Indian Problem'. Describes how the Colonial Office tended to favour
the European settlers, yet without giving them all the supp ort they
felt they deserved. Describes African resentment of Indians and
Indian efforts to gain full civil rights, including pressure exerted
on the Colonial Office by the Indian Office, on behalf of Indians in
Gregory, R.G. (1975). Kenya's Commercial Relations With India,
1930-50. Paper presented at the Cambridge Conference on the History of
Gregory, R.G. (1981). Co-operation and Collaboration in Colonial East
Africa: The Asians' Political Role. African Affairs, 80, 259-273
Gregory, R.G. (1992a). The Rise and Fall of Philanthropy in East
Africa: The Asian Contribution. New Brunswick, New Jersey:
Shows that Asians in East Africa were committed philanthropists.
Includes discussion of how, beyond the strictly economic cost, the
expulsion of Asians from Uganda had severe costs to civil society.
Gregory, R.G. (1992b). Quest for Equality: Asian Politics in East
Africa, 1900-80. New Delhi: Orient Longman.
Gregory, R.G. (1993). South Asians and East Africa: An Economic and
Social History 1890 - 1980, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Gregory, R.G., Maxon, R.M. & Spencer, L.P. (1968). A Guide to the
Kenya Archives, Syracuse, Syracuse University Eastern Africa
Bibliographic Series No.3.
Indexed and annotated guide to the Provincial and District Annual
Reports, Record Books, Handing-Over Reports, Miscellaneous
Correspondence and Intelligence Reports. Numerous references to
prominent Asians, Asians institutions and associations, and events
that impacted on Asians.
Grewal, N.S. (1964). The Place of the Settler Community of Indian
Origin in the Plural Society of Tanganyika Under British
Administration, 1919 - 1960, Delhi, Department of African Studies,
University of Delhi.
Grewal, N.S. (1966). India and Tanzania. Africa Quarterly, 6 (1),
Pre-colonial trade, early Indian settlement, Indians under German
rule, the proposal for Indian colonization of Tanganyika, British
rule including the role of the British Government of India.
Grewal, N.S. (1967). Pioneers in East Africa: A Study of Asians in
East Africa. Journal of African and Asian Studies, 1(1), 66-89
Grewal, N.S. (1973). Indians in Tanganyika Part I - The Decade of
Discontentment - 1923-32. Journal of African and Asian Studies, 4 (1),
Gundara, J.S. (1980). Aspects of Indian Culture in Nineteenth Century
Zanzibar. South Asia, 3 (1), 14-27
Gundara, J.S. (1982). Fragment of Indian Society in Zanzibar: Conflict
and Change in the 19th Century. Africa Quarterly, 21 (2), 23-40
Gundara, J.S. (1984). British Extraterritorial Jurisdiction in
Nineteenth Century Zanzibar. Africa Quarterly, 23 (3-4), 10-27
Gundara, J.S. (1993). British Extraterritorial Jurisdiction, Imperial
Enterprise and Indians in Nineteenth Century Zanzibar. In M. Israel
& N. K. Wagle (Eds.), Ethnicity, Identity, Migration: The South
Asian Context (pp. 291-319). Toronto: University of Toronto, South
Asian Studies Papers No.6, Centre for South Asian Studies.
Gupta, A. (1968). Indians Abroad in Asia and Africa: The Problem.
Africa Quarterly, 7(4), 302-315
Gupta, A. (1969). The Asians in East Africa: Problems and Prospects,
International Studies, 10(3), 270-302
Gupta, A. (1970). A Note on Indian Attitudes to Africa. African
Affairs, 69 (275), 170-178
Gupta, A. (Ed.). (1971a). Indians Abroad: Asia and Africa. New Delhi:
Report of a seminar held in New Delhi, April 1969, under the auspices
of the Indian Council for Africa and Indian Council for Cultural
Gupta, A. (1971b). The Problem. In A. Gupta (Ed.), Indians Abroad:
Asia and Africa. (pp. 397-413). New Delhi: Orient Longman.
Gupta, A. (1974a). Uganda Asians, Britain, India and the Commonwealth.
African Affairs, 73, 312-324
Gupta, A. (1974b). India and the Asians in East Africa. Paper
presented at the Conference of the Canadian Association of African
Gupta, A. (1975). India and the Asians in East Africa. In M. Twaddle
(Ed.), Expulsion of a Minority: Essays on Ugandan Asians (pp.
125-139). London: Athlone Press.
Gupta, A. (1979). Old and New Indians in East and Cemtral Africa. In
I.J. Bahadur Singh (Ed.), The Other India: The Overseas Indians and
Their Relationship With India (pp. 147-153). New Delhi:
Gupta, A.D. (1997). Indians in Africa: Past, Present and Future.
Africa Quarterly, 37(1&2), 59-76
Historical review of Asian settlement in the Indian Ocean, Eastern and
Southern Africa. Mentions the Indian National Congress attitudes
towards Indians living in Africa and changes in post-Independence
Indian Government policy towards Indians abroad. Notes criticizms that
Indians failed to participate sufficiently in African nationalist
movements and have not integrated with Africans.
Gupta, D. (1998). South Asians in East Africa: Achievements and
Discrimination. South Asia [Special issue], 21, 103-136
Gwaderi, A. (1996). Contribution of Asians to the Economic Development
of Kenya. Africa Quarterly, 36 (4), 39-44
Gwynne, M.D. (1975). The Origin and Spread of Some Domestic Food
Plants of Eastern Africa. In H.N. Chittick & R. Rotberg (Eds.),
East Africa and the Orient (pp. 248-271). New York: Africana
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Halbach, A.J. (1973). Die Ausweisung der Asiaten aus Uganda, Sieben
Monate Amin'scher Politic in Documenten. Munchen: Institute fur
Title: The Expulsion of Asians Out of Uganda, Seven Months of Amin's
Policy in Documents. Includes copies of Decrees, and reports from the
Uganda media (mainly Uganda Argus and the Voice of Uganda) from August
1972 to February 1973. Most articles are written in English with brief
commentaries in German.
Hardy, R. (1965). The Iron Snake, London: Collins.
Background to and building of the Uganda Railway.
Harris, J.E. (1971). The African Presence in Asia: Consequences of the
East African Slave Trade. Evanston: Northwestern University Press.
Harris, J.E. (1972). Africans in Indian History. Paper presented at
the University of Nairobi Department of History Staff Seminar, 4
Discusses Habshis and Siddis whose ancestors came to India from
Africa as slaves merchants and later achieved economic, political and
military influence in Indian history far in excess of their numbers.
Includes discussion of Malik Ambar, an Ethiopian who ruled the area
of Ahmadnagar in Deccan from 1602-1626.
Harrison, C. (1976). The Expulsion of the Asians. Case Studies in
Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms: A World Survey, 4, 287-315
Hawkins, F. (1973). Uganda Asians in Canada. New Community, 2 (3),
Describes the two phases in the management of Ugandan Asian refugees
in Canada. Phase One involved the reception of refugees in Longue
Point and their subsequent redistribution. Phase Two, the settlement
and adjustment of the new immigrants in Canada. Attention is paid to
the services and programmes provided by the government and voluntary
Uganda Asian Committees in the eleven principle cities where the
Uganda Asians settled. Postscript includes statistics regarding the
number of Ugandan Asian refugees admitted, visa applications
outstanding, employment, and numbers receiving financial assistance
Hawkins, H.C. (1965). Wholesale and Retail Trade in Tanganyika, A
Study of Distribution in East Africa. New York: Frederick A. Praeger.
A study carried out by the Economist Intelligence Unit during 1962 at
the request of the Tanganyika Ministry of Commerce. Research included
220 in-depth interviews in 45 of the 55 Districts. Extensive
discussion on the role of Asians in the economy. Numerous tables, many
of which contain data disaggregated by race.
Heilman, B. (1998). Who are the Indigenous Tanzanians? Competing
Conceptions of Tanzanian Citizenship in the Business Community. Africa
Today, 45 (3-4), 369-387
In the 1990s a populist faction in the business community was
questioning whether Asians should be given the same rights as African
Tanzanians. Explores the issue of what it means to be a citizen of a
nation state in which there is a relatively prosperous immigrant
minority and a mainly poor indigenous majority.
Hetherington, P. (1997). Michael Cohen and Scott MacWilliam, Indigenous Capital in Kenya:
The "Indian" Dimension of the Debate. Australian Journal of Politics and History, 43 (1), 106
Heyer, S. S. (1961). The Asians in Kenya. Africa South, 5 (2), 77-84
Asian political participation, including political conflicts with
Hill, A. (1975). The Fertility of the Asian Community of East Africa.
Population Studies, 29 (3), 355-372
Hill, M. (1944). The Dual Policy in Kenya. Nakuru: Kenya Weekly News.
A collection of articles published in the Kenya Weekly News between
July 1943 and March 1944 on the present and future of the Kenya
Hill, M. (1950). Permanent Way: The Story of the Kenya and Uganda
Railway, Nairobi: East African Railways and Harbours.
Many references to the role of Asians in building the Uganda Railway,
in commerce, and government policy towards Asians up to the mid-1940s.
Himbara, D. (1993). Myths and Realities of Kenyan Capitalism. The
Journal of Modern African Studies, 31 (1), 93-107
Himbara, D. (1994). Kenyan Capitalists, the State and Development,
Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner.
Argues, based on a sample of 100 companies that are members of the
Kenya Association of Manufacturers, that the contribution made to
Kenya's economy by Kenyan Asians, which Himbara attributes to
characteristics of Asian 'culture', has been under-estimated.
Himbara, D. (1997). The 'Asian Question' in East Africa: The
Continuing Controversy on the Role of Indian Capitalists in
Accumulation and Development in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. African
Studies, 56 (1), 1-18
Traces the relationship between states in East Africa and Asian
capitalists from 1940. Argues that Asian economic activity has been
flourishing again since market liberalization policies gathered
momentum in the 1990s.
Hindu Council of Kenya (1998). Second All Africa Hindu Conference
Souvenir. Nairobi: Printfast Ltd.
Hirth, G. (1990). Zur Bedeutung von Minderheiten fur Okonomische
Entwicklungs-prozesse von Landern der Dritten Welt: Dargestellt am
Beispiel der Asiatischen Minderheit in Kenia, Tansania und Uganda,
Munster: Volkswirtschaftliche Schriftenreihe, Bd.5
Title: Significance of Minorities for Economic Development Processes
in Third World Countries, with the Examples of the Asian Minorities in
Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda.
Hollingsworth, L.W. (1960). The Asians of East Africa, London:
Honey, M. (1974). Asian Industrial Activities in Tanganyika. Tanzania
Notes and Records, 75, 55-69
Honey, M. (1982). History of Indian Merchant Capital and Class
Formation in Tanganyika, c.1840-1940. Ph.D. thesis, University of Dar
Hopkins, E. (1966). Racial Minorities in British East Africa. In S.
Diamond & F. Burke (Eds.), The Transformation of East Africa (pp.
83-153). New York: Basic Books.
Horton, M. (1986). Asiatic Colonization of the East African Coast: The
Manda Evidence. Royal Asiatic Society Journal, 2, 201-213
Howard, R. (1994). Review of R.G. Gregory, The Rise and Fall of
Philanthropy in East Africa: The Asian Contribution. Canadian Journal
of African Studies, 28 (1), 156-157
Hoyle, W.E. (1957). Early Days in Kampala. Uganda Journal, 21 (1),
Includes references to the important role played by Allidina Visram
in supp lying Kampala and in opening up other parts of Uganda to
Humphrey, D. & Ward, D. (1974). Passports and Politics.
Describes the arrival and resettlement of Asians from Uganda in
Britain in 1972.
Hunt, S. (1977). Adaption and Nutritional Applications of Food Habits
Among Ugandan Asians Settling in Britain. Ph.D. thesis, University of
A longitudinal study of the changes in food habits, by religious
affiliation, of 176 Ugandan Asian families who came to Britain
following the 1972 expulsion. Families were first visited in Uganda
Resettlement Board reception camps where they were asked about their
food habits in Uganda, and again a year or more after they left these
camps. Findings included a move away from eating all meals at home
which had been the custom in Uganda; a reduction in the variety of
foods served at one meal; and some modification of their religious
laws concerning food. Includes various statistics about the lives led
by the sample population before leaving Uganda.
Hunter, G. (1963). Education for a Developing Region: A Study in East
Africa. London: George Allen and Unwin.
A study of the educational opp ortunities of the different races,
including Asians, living in East Africa.
Huxley, E. & Perham, M. (1944). Race and Politics in Kenya.
London: Faber and Faber.
Correspondence between the authors containing numerous references to
Indians, including Indians' relations with settlers and Africans.
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Ige, B. (1973). Behind the Rhetoric in Uganda: The Expulsion of the
Asians. International Perspectives, January / February, 39-45
Briefly traces Asian settlement and post-Independence regulations
affecting Asians in East Africa, before focusing on Uganda and the
1972 expulsion, including its economic repercussions and responses of
leaders in neighbouring countries and Canada.
Imperial Indian Citizenship Association (1923). Indian Abroad
Bulletin, No. 4 - Kenya. Bombay.
Imperial Indian Citizenship Association (1946). Indian Abroad
Bulletin, No. 24 - East Africa. Bombay.
Indians Overseas Association (c. 1921). Indians in East Africa: Is the
Segregation Policy to Prevail? Views of the Government of India.
Indians Overseas Association (c.1923). How India Looks at Kenya.
Indians Overseas Association (c. 1923). The Real Kenya Question: A Few
Ingutia, A. (1965). Caste in India and Africa. Transition, 5, 15-19
A Kenyan African sociologist who attempts to equate caste with the
concept of the African tribe. Claims that caste has been abolished
and so should tribe.
Ismail, A.H. (1946). Some problems of Indian Education in Kenya.
Forward, July, 8-11
Ismail, A. (1979). Varas Alidina Visram 'The Uncrowned King of
Uganda'. Ismaili Forum, 4 (1), 2-5
Ismailia Constitutional Committee, Uganda. (1961). Report of the
Ismailia Constitutional Committee, 1960-61. Kampala.
Ismailia Education Department for Uganda. (1955). A Review of Ismailia
Education in the Uganda Protectorate, Kampala.
Ismailia Supreme Council for Africa. (1962). The Constitution of the
Shia Imami Ismailis in Africa. Nairobi.
Comments on the 1962 Ismailia Constitution, particularly changes in
personal law, can be found in J.N. Anderson (1964).
Iyer, V. (1972). Asian Women's Organisations in Nairobi. Paper
presented to the Historical Association of Kenya.
Iyer, V. (1974). Apa Pant - The First Indian Envoy. Nairobi:
University of Nairobi Department of History Seminar Papers 1973/74.
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Jain. P.C. (1989). Emigration and Settlement of Indians Abroad.
Sociological Bulletin, 38 (1), 155-168
Concise survey, that also identifies factors that affected the
patterns of emigration from India, from the abolition of slavery in
the British empire in 1834 to the early 1980s. Includes a table
showing the number of emigrants, returned migrants and net migration
from 1834-5 to 1936-7. Brief references to East Africa.
Jain, P.C. (1990). Racial Discrimination Against Overseas Indians: A
Class Analysis. New Delhi: Concept.
Focuses on Kenya, Malaysia and Guyana.
Jain, P.C. (1993). The Socio-economic History of Indians in Kenya. In
J.K. Motwani, M. Gosine & J. Barot-Motwani (Eds.), Global Indian
Diaspora: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow (pp. 131-142). New York:
Global Organization of People of Indian Origin.
Discusses the history of Asians in Kenya in three time periods: from
about 1500AD to 1923 when the Indian Question was at its height and
African paramountcy in Kenya was eventually recognized; 1923 to
Independence; and post-Independence, with particular reference to
Africanization and the Asian response. Reference is made to Lugard and
Johnson's early supp ort for Indian settlement. Statistics showing
Asian population growth, geographic distribution and employment. Asian
political participation. Does not believe the 1982 attempted coup had
a significant impact on Asians. Suggests that since the late 1970s
Asians have been better placed than before, but that their position in
the class structure of Kenya continues to be a source of vulnerability
as well as their strength.
Jain, S. (1969). Nationalization in Tanzania: Some Legal Aspects.
Africa Quarterly, 9 (2), 141-148
Includes a brief description of the Indian Government's response to
the nationalization of property of people of Indian origin in
Jain, S. (1990). Expulsion of Asian Indians From Uganda: Or the Color
of African Racism. Migration World, 18 (3-4), 27-29
After citing examples of discrimination against Ugandan Asians under
the first Obote government argues that Africans have often practiced a
double standard, for example denouncing racism abroad whilst
practicing racism in their own countries. Refers to the Canadian
Government's internment of Japanese and confiscation of Japanese
property in the early 1940s and the payment of reparations nearly 50
years later, and the unwillingness of the second Obote government to
pay compensation for property confiscated from Asians during the Amin
Jaina Deravasi Organization. (1963). Sri Parsvanatha Pratistha
Mahotsav Khand. Mombasa: Jaina Svetambara Dervasi Sangh.
Commemoration volume of the inauguration festival of the Jain
Parsvanath Shrine. (In Gujarati)
Jamal, V. (1976a). Asians in Uganda, 1880-1972: Inequality and
Expulsion. Economic History Review, 29 (2), 602-616
The economic role of Asians in Uganda and the resentment and
discrimination that they faced.
Jamal, V. (1976b). Review of M. Twaddle (Ed.), Expulsion of a
Minority. Journal of Modern African Studies, 14 (2), 357-361
James, L. (1940). The Indian Problem in Eastern and Southern Africa.
M.A. dissertation, Liverpool University.
A detailed statistical survey including the demographic and
occupational characteristics of the Asian populations, mainly using
1931 censuses. Chapter Two deals with East Africa including Zanzibar.
Statistics for Goans presented as a separate category.
Janmohamed, K.K. (1972). Some Reflections on Tejani's "Day After
Tomorrow" and Racial Integration in East Africa. Africa Ismaili, 4
(16), 5-6 & 12
Janmohamed, K.K. (1974). Ethnicity in an Urban Setting: A Case Study
of Mombassa. Paper presented to the Historical Association of Kenya.
Janmohamed, K.K. (1977). A History of Mombasa, c. 1895-1939: Some
Aspects of Economic and Social Life in an East African Port Town
During Colonial Rule. Ph.D. thesis, Northwestern University.
Explores selected economic and social aspects of Mombasa's development
- notably labour and land - during the first 40 odd years of British
rule. Numerous references to Asians including useful tables, prominent
Asians and Asian businesses, and the finance and credit system.
Jassat, E.M. (1976). A Sociological Analysis of the Interrelation
of the Economic and Political Activities of Indian Traders in East and
South Africa from the Mid-Nineteenth to the Mid-Twentieth Century, Ph.D. thesis,
Jayaram, N. (1998). The Study of Indian Diaspora: A Multidisciplinary
Agenda. Occasional Paper No.1, University of Hyderabad, Centre for the
Study of Indian Diaspora.
Available at: www.uohyd.ernet.in/NJWORD1.htm
Jaywardena, C. (1968). Migration and Social Change: A Survey of Indian
Communities Overseas. Geographical Review, 58, 426-449
Reviews literature that discusses a broad range of variables, such as
whether emigrants migrated in groups rather than as individuals,
associated with the persistence, adaption and dissolution of
traditional institutions including the family, religion and caste in
selected first generation Indian communities overseas. Concludes and
offers explanations why the Indian communities of East Africa
maintained a much stronger attachment to tradition than those in
Guyana and Trinidad, while those of Fiji, Natal and Sri Lanka occupied
positions between these extremes.
Jefremovas, V. (1994). Review of G. Prunier, Lóuganda et la Question
Indienne. Canadian Journal of African Studies, 28 (2), 353-354
Jevanjee, A. (1912). An Appeal on Behalf of the Indians in East
Jhaveri, K.L. (1999). Marching With Nyerere: Africanisation of Asians.
Delhi: B.R. Publishing Corporation.
Written by a long-serving Member of the Legislative Council and
Parliament, and former President of the Tanganyika Law Society. A
chronologically organized discussion of the role of Asians in the
post- World War Two period in the Independence struggle in Tanganyika.
Focuses particularly on the part played by the Asian Association in
conjunction with the Tanganyika Africa National Union (TANU) led by J.
Johnston, H.H. (1889). The Asiatic Colonization of East Africa.
Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, 37 (1), 161-173
Text of a speech by the author to the Society of Arts, followed by
wide ranging discussion. Begins by hypothesizing that humankind's
origins were in Asia and that Africa was first settled by migrants
from Asia who carried with them many of the plants and domesticated
animals found there today. Trade with the Gulf States and early Arab
settlements on the East African coast. About half of the paper
describes the different Indian communities living in Zanzibar, with
extended comments on the Ismaili Khoja's. References to Indian
involvement in inland trade, slavery, and inter-marriage between
Indian men and Arab women. Argues that Indians should be encourage to
settle in East Africa and to practice agriculture.
Jones, S. (1977). Kenya and the Devonshire White paper of 1923. ANU
History Journal, 13, 20-40
Joshi, H.P., Kotecha, B.V. & Paun, J.V. (Eds.) (1973). Jayant
Muljibhai Madhvani: In Memorium. Nairobi: Emco Glass Works.
Almost three hundred short tributes, newspaper coverage of Jayant
Madhvani's death and legacy, a selection of Jayant's speeches and
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Kaberuka, W. (1990). The Political Economy of Uganda 1890-1979: A Case
Study of Colonialism and Underdevelopment. New York: Vantage Press.
Kabwegyere, T. (1972). The Asian Question in East Africa. East Africa
Journal, June, 10-13
Kadende-Kaiser, R.M. & Kaiser, P.J. (1998). Identity, Citizenship
and Transnationalism: Ismailis in Tanzania and Burundians in the
Diaspora. Africa Today, 45 (3-4), 461-480
Examines the overlap of national frontiers in the context of identity
and citizenship with reference to Ismailis in Tanzania and Burundians
in diaspora, and the reinterpretation of the Western culture of
Kaiser, P.J. (1994). Culture and Civil Society in an International
Context: The Case of the Aga Khan Health-Care and Education
Initiatives in Tanzania. Ph.D. thesis, Indiana University,
Kaiser, P.J. (1995). State-Society Relations in an International
Context: The Case of the Aga Khan Health-Care Initiative in Tanzania.
International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 36 (3-4), 184-197
Kaiser, P.J. (1996). Structural Adjustment and the Fragile Nation: The
Demise of Social Unity in Tanzania. The Journal of Modern African
Studies, 34 (2), 227-237
Suggests that economic liberalization contributed to the religious
and racial tensions that began to emerge in Tanzania from the
mid-1980s, following an earlier period of much greater social
Kaiser, P.J. (1997). Culture, Transnationalism, and Civil Society: Aga
Khan Social Service Initiatives in Tanzania. Westport CT: Praeger.
Based on research and interviews with more than one hundred Ismaili
and African leaders between 1992 and 1995, analyzes the transnational and
cultural characteristics of the Ismaili social service network in
the context of state/society relations. Bibliography contains a small
section listing files relating to Ismailis in the National Archives of
Kala, A.S. (1980). The Role of 'Asians' in Kenya's Nationalist
Movement. In R.R. Ramchandani (Ed.), India and Africa, (pp. 204-221).
New Delhi: Radiant.
An historical survey. Includes discussion of the role played by the
early political activity of Asians in motivating Africans in their
own fight for rights and privileges.
Karadia, C. (1972). The Role of the Asian in the Development of
African Nationalism in Kenya. Diploma dissertation, Ruskin College,
Karnick, S.S. (1986). India - Africa Economic Relations: A Select
Bibliography, Bombay: Bombay University Centre of East African
Kasfir, N. (1978). Review of M. Twaddle (ed.) Expulsion of a Minority.
American Political Sciences Review, 72, 345-346
Kassam, S. (1982). Religion as a Medium for Social Change: A Case
Study of the Ismailis of Kenya. B.A. dissertation, University of
Nairobi. Ismaili historical and doctrinal background; firmans; social
structure including family structure and gender relations; modern /
Kassam-Remtulla, A. (1999). (Dis)Placing Khojas: Forging Identities,
Revitalizing Islam and Crafting Global Ismailism. B.A. Honours
dissertation, Stanford University.
Available at: http://ismaili.net/~heritage
Kaur, S. (n.d.). Afro-Sikhs in Kenya: Naak Parkash. Nairobi: Sikh
Kavuma, S. (1989). Government Divestiture Policy and the Departed
Asians Property Custodian Board. Paper presented to a seminar in
Kampala on the Uganda economy, 14th December.
Kazimi, A.A. (1948). An Inquiry into Indian Education in East Africa.
Nairobi: Government Printer.
Kenya Colony and Protectorate (n.d.). Asian Staff Seniority List.
Nairobi: Government Printer.
Kenya Colony and Protectorate. (1948). Commission on Educational
Expenditure (European and Asian). Nairobi: Government Printer.
Kenya Colony and Protectorate. (1948). Select Committee on Indian
Education. Nairobi: Government Printer.
A review of A.A. Kazimi (1948), An Inquiry into Indian Education in
Kenya Colony and Protectorate. (1959). Consideration of the
Recommendations of a Report on Asian and European Education in Kenya.
Legislative Council Sessional Paper No. 4 1958/59. Nairobi: Government
Keswani, D.G. (1979). Archival Documentation the Indian Emigration to
Indian Ocean Countries in the 19th Century and 20th Century. In C.
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129-148). Paris: Librarie Honore Champion.
Kibanda, L. (1991). Asian Property and the Departed Asian Property
Custodian Board: An Examination of Conflict and Property Rights.
L.L.B. dissertation, Makerere University.
Kiem, C.G. (1993). The Indian Trading Minority in East Africa: Causes
and Development of an Unresolved Conflict. Sociologus, 43 (2), 146-167
In German with an English summary.
King, K. (1975). Indo-African Skill Transfer in an East African
Economy. African Affairs, 74 (294), 65-71
Kipera, I. (1996). India's Technology Transfer to Kenya: Relevance to
Small and Medium Scale Industrial Development. Africa Quarterly, 36
Discusses technology transfer from India from the time that
construction of the
Uganda Railway began. Argues that technology from India is
particularly relevant to the development of small and medium scale
industries, especially when compared to technology transferred from
Kirby, A. (1958). The Asians in East Africa. Asian Review, 54 (200),
Kirk, W. (1951). Indian Ocean Community. Scottish Geographical
Magazine, 67 (3 & 4), 161-177
Kitarisibwa, K. (1986). The Expropriated Properties Act Revisited.
L.L.B. dissertation, Makerere University.
Kiwanuka, S.M. (1976). The Uganda National Movement and the Trade
Boycott of 1959/60: A Study of Politics and Economics in Uganda on the
Eve of Independence. Makerere Historical Journal, 2 (1), 1-19
Kjellberg, E. (1967). The Ismailis in Tanzania. Mimeo. Dar es Salaam:
Institute of Public Administration.
Klineberg, O. & Zavalloni, M. (1969). Nationalism and Tribalism
Among African Students: A Study of Social Identity. Paris: Mouton.
Survey of approximately 1000 university students in six countries,
Ugandans, carried out during 1965. Numerous references to Asians
including stereotytpes and attitudes to inter-marriage.
Knott, M. (1994). The Gujarati Machis in Leeds. In R. Ballard (Ed.),
Desh Pardesh: The South Asian Presence in Britain (pp.213-230).
London: Hurst & Co.
A study of a small Gujarati community of 143 households from a
traditionally lowly caste of leather-workers, three-quarters of whom
came to Britain via East Africa, including the upward occupational
mobility of younger generations.
Koga, M. (Ed.) (1991). South Asian Community Organisations in East
Africa, The United Kingdom, Canada and India, Tokyo: ILCAA, Tokyo
University of Foreign Studies.
Includes descriptions of 106 Asian religious and community
organizations in Kenya and Tanzania in the mid-1980s. Two of the
organizations listed for Canada and one in the U.K. have specific East
African links. For the larger organizations the information provided
is generally quite detailed and often not readily accessible
Kohler, D. (1973). Public Opinion and the Ugandan Asians. New
Community, 2 (2), 194-197
Kondapi, C. (1951). Indians Overseas 1838-1949, Indian Council of
World Affairs, Madras: Oxford University Press.
Overview of Indian emigration up to 1949. References to the situation
of Asians in East Africa, including the effects of colonial
Koshi, A.K. (1993). An Interview With Bahadur Tejani. Ufahamu, 21 (3),
Kotecha, B. (1994). On the Threshold of East Africa. London: Jyotiben
Translated by R. Reynell from the original Gujarati Poorva Africana
Pagthare. Author was born in Kisumu and in 1944 moved to Uganda until
the 1972 expulsion. Includes a general survey of Asian settlement in
East Africa and the expulsion.
Kotecha, K.C. (1975). The Shortchanged: Uganda Citizenship Laws and
How They Were Applied to its Asian Minority. International Lawyer, 9
Kotecha, K.C. & Adams, R.W. (1981). African Politics: The
Corruption of Power. Washingron, D.C., University Press of America.
The Chapter titled 'The Quest for Economic Independence' discusses the
expulsion of Asians from Uganda. It cites cases of army harassment of
departing Asians, and examples of the official denial of status to
Asians who had claims to Ugandan citizenship.
Kramer, J. (1974). The Ugandan Asians. The New Yorker, April 8, 47-93
Includes case studies of Asians who lived in Uganda before the
expulsion and in their new homes.
Krishnamurthy, B.S. (1972). Review of J.S. Mangat, A History of Asians
in East Africa c.1886 to 1945. Transafrican Journal of History, 2 (1),
Kuczynski, R.R. (1949). Demographic Survey of the British Colonial
Empire Vol.2. London: Oxford University Press.
At the time, this was probably the most exhaustive demographic survey
of Indians in East Africa.
Kuepp er, G. et al. (1976). Ugandan Asian Refugees: Resettlement Centre
to Community. Community Development Journal, 11, 199-208
Kumar, S. (1973). Uganda Asians One Year Later: Manchester Reception.
New Community, 2 (4), 386-388
Kuper, J. (1973). The Goan Community in Kampala. Ph.D. thesis,
University of London.
Kuper, J. (1975). The Goan Community in Kampala. In M. Twaddle (Ed.),
Expulsion of a Minority: Essays on Ugandan Asians (pp. 53-69). London:
Kuper, J. (1979)."Goan" and "Asian" in Uganda: An Analysis of Racial
Identity and Cultural Categories. In W. Shack & E. Skinner (Eds.),
Strangers in African Societies (pp. 243-259). Berkley: University of
Argues that the lives and fate of the Goan community in the plural
society of Uganda were pre-eminently determined by the racial
identity of its members. The ambiguous status of Goans as "Asians" in
a predominantly African country and as "Goans" who were different
from other Asians in terms of language and religion and generally
regarded themselves as more culturally European than Indian.
Kuper, H. (1969). Strangers in Plural Societies: Asians in South
Africa and Uganda. In L. Kuper & M. Smith (Eds.), Pluralism in
Africa (pp. 247-282). Berkley, California: University of California
Kuper, L. (1970). Continuities and Discontinuities in Race Relations:
Evolutionary or Revolutionary Change. Cahiers D'Etudes Africaines, 10
Kunzuru, H.N. (1929). The Indian Problem in Kenya. The Hindustan
Kurtz, J.R. (1998). Peter Nazareth. In P.M. Parekh & S.F. Jagne
(Eds.). Postcolonial African Writers (pp. 312-317). London: Fitzroy
Kushemererwa, J. (1992). Behind the Return of Asian Properties: A
Question of Black Versus Asians? Revolutionary, 3 (1), 5-7
Kyle, K. (1966). Gandhi, Harry Thuku and Early Kenya Nationalism.
Transition, 6 (27), 16-22
Beginning with the 1919 Economic Commission, discusses Indian supp ort
for the first phase of African nationalism in East Africa,
particularly of the East African Association under the leadership of
Harry Thuku. Criticism by the Kikuyu Association and through S.T.
Sentongo's newspaper, Sekanyolya, of Thuku's endorsement of Indians.
British Government and missionary reaction to Indo- African
Kyle, K. (1972). The Strange History of Asians in East Africa. The
Listener, 88 (2268), 322-324
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Lal, K. (Ed.) (1984). Trial of Balwant Rai and Others. Leicester:
Deals with the murder of Isher Dass on November 6th 1942 in his office
in the Desai Memorial Hall, Nairobi, and the trial and execution of
two of the three persons subsequently accused. Biographical details of
Dass, including background to the animosity felt by some Asians
towards him. Includes the trial proceedings in toto.
Lalani, Z. (1997). Ugandan Asian Expulsion: 90 Days and Beyond Through
the Eyes of the International Press. Tampa, Florida: Expulsion
A collection of newspaper articles, editorials and photographs that
appeared in the press mostly during the 90 days Idi Amin gave Asians to leave
Uganda. Coverage includes African, European, North American, Indian
and Australian newspapers. Also includes the 1973 UNHCR Report titled
"How They Did It: Resettlement of Asians From Uganda in Europe and
Langley, W. E. & Okolo, J. E. (1974). Uganda: Expulsion of Aliens
and Human Rights. A Current Bibliography on African Affairs, 7 (4),
Lavuna, J.L. (1967). The Role of the Asian Community in the Political
Development of Kenya. B.A. Political Science dissertation, Dar es
Salaam, University of East Africa.
Legum, C. (1954). Must We Lose Africa? London: W.H. Allen & Co.
Chapter XIX, titled "Asians in Africa", includes a brief general
survey of Asian settlement, political participation, commerce and race
relations with Europeans and Africans in East Africa and South Africa.
Perceives the 'Asian problem' to be a creation of European activities
designed to serve European interests in the early days of colonial
expansion and settlement. Argues that failure to treat Asians in the
same way as Europeans and Africans would cause or accentuate the very
things which Europeans and Africans have criticized Africans for.
Discusses citizenship including quotes from Nehru stating that Asians
in Africa should become citizens of their African homelands; Europeans
fears of "Indian imperialism" in Africa; and European concerns over
rates of Asian population growth in Africa.
Lemon, A. (1980). The Indian Communities of East Africa and the
Caribbean. In A. Lemon & N. Pollock (Eds.), Studies in Overseas
Settlement and Population (pp. 225-241). London: Longman.
Lemoosa, P.L. (1996). The Asians in the Kenyan Colonial Economy.
Eastern Africa Journal of Historical and Social Sciences Research, 1
Lepp er, G.H. (1914). An America For The Hindu. The Empire Review, 28,
Leys, N. (1921). The Indian in Africa. Church Mission Review, 72,
Limagne, J. (1972). Ouganda: Les Asiatiques Indesirables. Revue
Francaise d'Etudes Politiques Africaines, 81, 17-21
Liszka, S.W. (1967). The Contributions of the Asiatic Indian to the
Economy of Kenya, 1896-1963. M.A. dissertation, Duquesne University,
Lobo, L. (2000). They Came to Africa: 200 Years of the Asian Presence
in Tanzania. Dar es Salaam: Sustainable Village.
Lodhi, A. (2000). Oriental Influences in Swahili: A Study in Language
and Cultural Contact. Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg, Department
of Oriental and African Languages.
Lofchie, M. (1969). The Plural Society in Zanzibar. In L. Kuper &
M.G. Smith (Eds.), Pluralism in Africa (pp. 283-328). Los Angeles:
University of California Press. Lovegrove, J.P. (1963). Asians and
the Building of the Uganda Railway. In S. Pandit (Ed.), Asians in East
and Central Africa (pp.36-47). Nairobi: Panco Publications.
Lord Lester of Herne Hill (2002). Thirty Years on: The East African
Case Revisited. Public Law, 52-72 Low, D.A. (1973). Uganda Unhinged.
International Affairs, 49 (2), 219-228
Links problems experienced by the Amin regime during 1971 and 1972 to
the decision to expel Asians and fight the 'economic war'.
Luthy, H. (1971). India and East Africa: Imperial Partnership at the
End of the First World War. Journal of Contemporary History, 6 (2),
Lyon, M. & West, B. (1995). London Patels: Caste and Commerce. New
Community, 21 (3), 399-419
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Maciel, M. (1985). Bwana Karani. Braunton: Merlin.
Autobiography of a Goan who served as a civil servant in Kenya during
the 1950s, first in Lodwar and Marsibit. Useful insights into Kenya's
Goan society of the time.
Madhvani Group (1971). Enterprise in East Africa. Nairobi: United
Magot, C.K. (1973). The Businessman: Daudi Kabeya Murangira. In J.
Iliffe (Ed.), Modern Tanzanians: A Volume of Biographies (pp.
171-191), Nairobi: East African Publishing House.
Biography of a leading African cotton grower and cooperative movement
official in Musoma District, Tanzania. The cooperatives' successful
challenge to Indian middlemen cotton buyers and ginnery owners in the
Maini, P.L. (1944). The Indian Problem in Kenya. M.Sc. dissertation,
University of London.
A general overview of issues affecting the Indian population in Kenya
from the late nineteenth century to the early 1940s. Includes
references to restrictions on access to land and political
participation. A section on Indian education services includes a
number of useful tables and other statistics not easily accessible
elsewhere. Suggests that preferential treatment given to Europeans
confined Indians mainly to a middleman role that prevented them from
participating fully in the development of Kenya.
Maini, S. (1975). Asians and Politics in Late Colonial Uganda: Some
Personal Recollections. In M. Twaddle (Ed.), Expulsion of a Minority:
Essays on Ugandan Asians (pp.112-124). London: Athlone Press.
Maitland-Jones, J., Aldrick, J. & Macdonald, R.(1985). The Old
Town Mombasa: A Historical Guide, Mombasa: Rodwell Press, for The
Friends of Fort Jesus.
A 35 page illustrated guidebook. Includes details of Asian historical
figures, Asian mosques and Asian-owned buildings.
Malik, M.H. (1921). Indians in East Africa. The Hindustan Review, 44,
Mamdani, M. (1969). Asians in East Africa - Their Origin and Social
Pan-African Journal, 2 (4), 375-395
Mamdani, M. (1973). From Citizen to Refugee: Uganda Asians Come to
Britain. London: Frances Pinter.
An account by a leading Ugandan Asian academic, of the expulsion and
a transit camp in Britain.
Mamdani, M. (1975). Class Struggles in Uganda. Review of African
Political Economy, 2 (4), 26-61
Deals mainly with the period since Independence in 1962. Identifies
two major class struggles. First, the rising antagonism and conflict
between the Asian commercial bourgeoisie and the African
petit-bourgeoisie, seen as the focal point of the crisis of the
colonial system. Second, fragmentation and factionalism within the
African petit-bourgeoisie, seen as the focal point of the crisis of
the neo-colonial system.
Mamdani, M. (1976). Politics and Class Formation in Uganda. London:
Includes analysis of Asian roles in Ugandan commerce and the 1972
Mamdani, M. (1983a). Imperialism and Fascism in Uganda. Nairobi:
Mamdani, M. (1983b). The Nationality Question in a Neo-Colony: A
History Perspective. Mwazo, 5(1), 36-54
Mamdani, M. (1991). Expropriated Properties in the Context of Human
Rights. Paper delivered to the Uganda Law Society, 18 July.
Also appears in the New Vision newspaper, 24 July 1991, under the
title 'Dissolve Custodian Board - Mamdani'.
Mamdani, M. (1993). The Ugandan Asian Expulsion: 20 Years After.
Journal of Refugee Studies, 6 (3), 265-273
Also appears in Economic and Political Weekly, 13-16 January, 93-96
Mamdani, M. (1998). When Does a Settler Become a Native?: Reflections
on the Colonial Role of Citizenship in Equatorial and South Africa.
University of Cape Town Inaugural Lectures Series.
Available at: www.uct.ac.za/general/inaug/mamdani.htm
Mangat, J.A. (1968a). Aspects of the 19th Century Indian Commerce in
Zanzibar. Journal of African and Asian Studies, 2 (1), 17-27
Mangat, J.A. (1968b). Was Allidina Visram a Robber Baron or a Skillful
and Benevolent Commercial Pioneer? East Africa Journal, February,
A leading early Asian entrepreneur and philanthropist whose business
empire spanned across East Africa, but disintegrated rapidly after
his death. Includes
discussion of the role of Asian traders in the development of the
money-based economy and markets for Asian produce.
Mangat, J.A. (1969). A History of The Asians in East Africa c.1886 to
1945. London: Oxford University Press.
Mangat, J.A. (1970). The India Office and East Africa 1889 to 1903.
Hadith, 2, 202-211
Assesses the varied roles played by the India Office, London, in East
African affairs during the early colonial period. Identifies some of
the rich material available in India Office records relating to East
Mangat, J.A. (1976). The Immigrant Communities (2). In D. Low & A.
Smith (Eds.), History of East Africa Vol.III (pp. 467-488). Oxford:
Mangat, N. (1956). The Presidential Address, delivered at the 24th
(open session), Kenya Indian Congress, Nakuru, 4-6 August. Nairobi:
Manji, M. (1995). Madatally Manji: Memoirs of a Biscuit Baron.
Nairobi: Kenway Publications.
Marret, P. (1988). Meghi Pethraj Shah: His Life and Achievements.
Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.
Based on the original biography in Gujarati by T. Mehta.
Marett, V. (1976). East African Asian Students in Further Education.
M.Ed. dissertation, University of Leicester.
Marett, V. (1983). Ugandan Asians in Leicester. Ph.D. dissertation.
University of Leicester.
Marett, V. (1989). Immigrants Settling in the City. London: Leicester
Marett, V. (1993). Resettlement of Ugandan Asians in Leicester.
Journal of Refugee Studies, 248-250
Markham, E.A. & Kingston, A. (1973). Merely a Matter of Colour:
The Uganda Asian Anthology. London: "Q" Books.
Marris, P. (1971). Ambiguity and Commitment: The Crisis for Asian
Businessmen in Nairobi. Mawazo, 3 (2), 17-25
Marris, P. (1972). Asian Exodus: The Historic Perspective. Third
World, 1 (2), 9-11
Marris, P. & Somerset, A. (1971). African Businessmen: A Study of
Entrepreneurship and Development in Kenya. London: Routledge and Kegan
Martin, C. (1953). A Demographic Study of an Immigrant Population: The
Indian Population of East Africa. Population Studies, 6 (3), 233-241
Mason, D. (1970). The Crisis for British Asians in Uganda. London:
Church Missionary Society and The British Council for Churches.
Master, P.D. (1931). Segregation of Indians in Kenya: A brief review
of segregation policy pursued in Kenya in relation to sales of
township plots. Mombasa.
Matson, A.T. (1966). Sewa Haji: A Note. Tanganyika Notes and Records,
Ismaili trader, financier, caravan owner and philanthropist in the
late nineteenth century, whose coastal interests were centred on
Bagomayo with inland agents as far afield as Mwanza and Kampala.
Angered British, Zanzibar and IBEA officials by helping Emin Pasha
charter a steamer for his expedition and for assisting the Sultan of
Zanzibar to pursue uncooperative policies towards his Briish
advisors. Suggests that Allidina Visram was able to build his empire
in the Uganda Protectorate on the foundation laid by Sewa Haji.
Mattausch, J. (1998). From Subjects to Citizens: British 'East African
Asians'. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 24 (1), 121-141
Traces the history of East African Asians over a period of four
centuries in Gujarat, Africa and Britain. Argues that a mercantilist
ideology has enabled East African Asians to prosper in Britain where
they are no longer political subjects but, for the first time, are
able to live their lives as full and successful citizens. Suggests
that this transition from subjects to citizens may have disruptive
repercussions upon their culture.
Mattausch, J. (2000). A Case of Mistaken Identity: Why British African
Asians are not an Ethnic Community. South Asia Research, 20 (2),
Mavani, F. (1960). Jains in East Africa. Voice of Ahinsa, 10, 421-423
Mawani, P.I. (1975). The Jamat Khana as a Source of Cohesiveness in
the Ismaili Community in Kenya. M.A. dissertation, University of
Views the religious and social activities of the jamat khana as
interdependent forces that play a crucial role in maintaining the
cohesiveness of the Ismailis.
Unstructured interviews and questionnaires administered to
approximately 100 persons. Historical and religious origins of the
Ismailis; Ismaili settlement in Kenya; and the establishment of
Mawani, P. (1976). Sir Tharia Topan. Africa Ismaili, 5 (7), 3 &
Mayor, R.K. (1985). Memoirs of Ram Karan Mayor. Hounslow West U.K.:
Author came to Kenya in the 1920's and wrote these memoirs after
retiring to Britain. Includes information about personalities and
Mazrui, A.A. (1966). Socialized Capitalism in East Africa. Africa
Quarterly, 6 (3), 222-227
Includes suggestions Mazrui believed could have narrowed the economic
distance between Africans and Asians in Kenya.
Mazrui, A.A. (1969). Social Policy and the Indian Exodus From East
Africa. Verfassung Und Rechtin Ubersee (Hamburg), 2 (3), 311-315
Attributes the exodus of Asians from Kenya and Uganda to
Africanization of the commercial sector, Indophobia, and British
Mazrui, A.A. (1972). Uganda's Asian Policy. South African Outlook,
Mazrui, A.A. (1975). The de-Indianization of Uganda: Who is a Citizen?
In D. Smock & K. Bentsi-Enchill (Eds.), The Search for National
Integration in Africa (pp. 77-90). London: Collier Macmillan.
Discusses the background to and factors involved in the expulsion.
Mazrui, A.A. (1976). Nation Building and Race Building in Amin's
Uganda as Racially Purist States. Foreign Affairs Reports, 25 (7),
Describes how both Israel and Uganda shared a belief in racial
self-reliance as the basis for nation building, where citizenship is based on kinship
and shared descent. Views the expulsion of Asians as an attempt to keep the
nation racially pure and as a reaction against the economic
dependence on Asians.
Mazrui, A.A. (1977). Armed Kinsmen and the Origins of the State: An
Essay in Philosophical Anthropology. Journal of Asian and African
Studies, 12 (1-4), 7-19
Mazrui, A.A. (1979). Casualties of an Underdeveloped Class Structure:
The Expulsion of Luo Workers and Asian Bourgeoisie from Uganda. In W.
Shack & E. Skinner (Eds.), Strangers in African Societies (pp.
261-278). Berkley: University of California Press
Argues that an under-developed class structure played a crucial role
in the decisions to expel Kenyan Luo workers from Uganda by Obote in
1970 and Asians by Amin in 1972.
Mazrui, A.A.. (1999). Africa Between Gandhi and Nehru - An Afro-Asian
Interaction. Africa Quarterly, 39 (2), 1 - 20
Focuses on the impact of Africa on Nehru and Gandhi. Includes
references to East Africa.
McCart, M. (1973). Wandsworth. Unsettled Ugandan Refugees. New
Society, 2 (4), 383-386
McCormack, R.T. (1971). Asians in Kenya: Conflict and Politics. New
York, Brooklyn: Theo. Gaus' Sons.
Ph.D. thesis, University of Fribourg. Role of British policy and
practice in fueling racism against Asians in Kenya, with particular
reference to the post World War
Two transition era. Extensive discussion of Asian participation in
McGuire, J.R. (1987). The Writer as Historical Translator: Peter
Nazareth's The General is Up. The Toronto South Asian Review, 6 (1),
Mcgregor-Ross, W. (1927). Kenya From Within. London: George Allen and
Part II is a detailed and sympathetic analysis of 'The Indian
McIntosh, B.G. (1971). The Political Crisis and the Missionary
Dilemma. Transafrica Journal of History, 1 (1), 101-129
McMaster, D.N. (1966). The Ocean Going Dhow Trade to Africa. The East
African Geographical Review, 4, 13-24
McWillian, M.D. (1963). Economic Viability and the Race Factor in
Kenya. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 12 (1), 55-69
Mehta, N. (1966). Dream Half Expressed: An Autobiography. Bombay:
Vikils Feffer and Simons.
Mehta, S. & Wilson, G. (c.1950s). The Asian Communities of
Mombasa. In G. Wilson (Ed.), Mombasa Social Survey, Part 1.
Unpublished typescript. Syracuse University microfilm 2081, reel 12
Meir, A. (1999). State Persecution and Vulnerability: A Comparative
Historical Analysis of Violent Ethnocentrism. Ph.D. dissertation,
University of Toronto.
Meisler, S. (1972). Uganda. Atlantic Monthly, 230, 6 (December),
27-28, 31-32, 34, 37-38
Melady, T. & Melady, M. (1976a). The Expulsion of Asians From
Uganda. Orbis: A Journal of World Affairs, 19 (4), 1600-1620
Thomas Melady was United States Ambassador in Uganda at the time of
Melady, T.P. & Melady, M.B. (1976b). Uganda: The Asian Exiles. New
York: Orbis Books.
Memon, P.A. (1974). Mercantile Intermediaries in a Colonial Spatial
System: Wholesaling in Kenya, 1830-1940. Ph.D. Dissertation,
University of Western Ontario.
Menon, K.P. (1935). Report on the Effect of Indian Interests of
Certain Decrees Passed by the Government of Zanzibar. New Delhi.
Metrowich, F.R. (1971). The Hapless Asians of East Africa. Plural
Societies, 2 (1), 69-74
Michaelson, M. (1979). The Relevance of Caste Among East African
Gujaratis in Britain. New Community, 7 (3), 350-360
Middleweek, H. & Ward. M. (1973). 'A Job Well Done': Welfare of
Evacuees From Uganda. London: Co-ordinating Committee for the Welfare
of Evacuees from Uganda.
Milewski, M. (1982). Indian Immigrants and the Development of the
Cotton Industry. South Asia Bulletin, 2 (2), 29-34
Miller, C. (1971). The Lunatic Express. New York: Macmillan.
The building of the Uganda Railway.
Minde, K. & Minde, R. (1976). Children of Immigrants: The
Adjustment of Asian Primary-School Children in Canada. Canadian
Psychiatric Association Journal, 21 (6), 371-381
Study of 55 Ismaili families who settled in Toronto after the
Mittleman J. & Marwal, O. (1975). Asian Alien Pariahs: A Cross
Regional Perspective. Studies in Race and Nations, 6 (1), 1-17
Mohammed, H.E. (1979). The Asian Legacy in Africa and the White Man's
Colour Culture, New York: Vantage Press.
Moon, H.L. (***). What Future For The Asians in East Africa? Crisis,
80 (1), 6-10
Moore, R. & Wallace, T. (1975). Slamming The Door: The
Administration of Immigration Control. London: Martin Robertson.
Includes descriptions of the many unpleasant experiences Uganda
Asians faced in dealing with the British High Commission in Kampala.
Morah, B. (1974). The Assimilation of Ugandan Asians in Calgary. M.A.
dissertation, University of Calgary.
Morris, H.S. (1953). The Structure of the Indian Community in Kampala.
Kampala: Proceedings of the EASIR Conference, February.
History and characteristics of Asian settlement and commerce in
Kampala up to the early 1950s. Includes a discussion of caste, an
emergent class system, the Ismaili community, and marriage
Morris, H.S. (1956). Indians in East Africa: A Study of a Plural
Society. British Journal of Sociology, 7 (3), 194-211
Morris, H.S. (1957a). Communal Rivalry Among Indians in Uganda.
British Journal of Sociology, 8 (4), 306-317
Morris, H.S. (1957b). The Plural Society. Man, 57, 124-125
Describes East Africa as a plural society in which Africans, Asians
and Europeans are marked off from one another by criteria of physical
and cultural differences. These differences and lack of mingling allow
differentiation into groups and categories within each of the three
Morris, H.S. (1958). The Divine Kingship of the Aga Khan. Southwestern
Journal of Anthropology, 14 (4), 454-472
Morris, H.S. (1959). The Indian Family in Uganda. American
Anthropologist, 61, 779- 789
Based partly on a survey of 90 households in Kampala during 1954.
Describes the social structures of Indian communities, including
reasons why it was not possible to transplant wholesale from the
Indian homeland certain practices and institutions in the areas of
kinship, religious worship, and leadership.
Morris, H.S. (1963). Immigrant Indian Communities in Uganda. Ph.D.
thesis, University of London.
Settlement and distribution of the Indian population of Uganda up to
1955. Describes features of the caste system in India and discusses
reasons why the caste and sectarian Asian communities in East Africa
had forms and functions that were very different to those from which
they had been derived. Discusses four Muslim, two Hindu, the Goan and
Sikh communities and suggests reasons why they emerged as distinctive
communities in Uganda instead of developing into one united community.
Examines the relations of these communities and other institutions
(kinship, economic, educational and political) to the wider plural
society in Uganda, and compares these with similar situations
elsewhere. Includes many detailed tables.
Morris, H.S. (1967). Caste Among the Indians of Uganda. In B. Schwartz
(Ed.), Caste in Overseas Indian Communities (pp. 267-281). San
The caste system in India and adjustments made of necessity in East
Africa. Development and role of corporate communal associations,
replacing older all- Indian associations. Influence of caste on
relations with one another and with the rest of society in Uganda.
Morris, H.S. (1968). The Indians in Uganda: Caste and Sect in a Plural
Society. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson.
Follows very closely the author's 1963 Ph.D thesis.
Morris, H.S. (1970). Review of J.S. Mangat, A History of the Asians in
East Africa, c. 1886 to 1945. Bulletin of SOAS, 33, 233-235
Morris, H.S. (1993). Indians in Uganda. In J.K. Motwani, M. Gosie
& J. Barot-Motwani (Eds.), Global Indian Diaspora: Yesterday,
Today and Tomorrow (pp. 143-147). New York: Global Organization of
People of Indian Origin.
Morrison, T. (1918). An Indian Colony in East Africa. Hindustan
Review, 38, 221-227
Written by a former member of the Viceroy of India's Council. Argues
that the former German East Africa should be placed under the
tutelage of India, in return for a pledge that India would renounce
all interest in the immigration policy of the former White dominions.
Morrison, T. (1938). An Indian Colony in East Africa. Hindustan
Review, 38, 221-227
Morse, S. (1975). Review of A. Bharati, The Asians of East Africa:
Jahind and Uhuru. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 13 (3),
Motani, N. (1972). The Growth of the African Civil Service in Uganda
1912-1940. Ph.D. thesis, University of London.
Motani, N. (1973). Review of R.G. Gregory, India and East Africa. The
Journal of African History, 14 (2), 347-349
Motani, N. (1975a). The Uganda Civil Service and the Asian Problem,
1894-1972. In M.Twaddle (Ed.), Expulsion of a Minority: Essays on
Ugandan Asians (pp. 98-111). London: Athlone Press.
Motani, N. (1975b). Uganda's Asian Refugees: Their Historical
Background and Resettlement in Canada and the USA. Kenya Historical
Review, 3 (1), 27-46
Mpidgo, R. (1977). From Stranger to Refugee: A Study of the
Integration of Ugandan Asians in Canada. Ph.D. thesis, State
University of New York at Buffalo.
Examines the integration of Ugandan Asian Refugees into the social
fabric of Toronto, including the effect of characteristics such as
education and religion on the degree of successful integration.
Mukherjee, M. (1949). European Jingoism in Kenya (the Programme of the
Kenya Electors'Union to prevent Indian Immigration). Indian Affairs, 2
Mukwaya, A. (1997). The Political Economy of the Asian Question in
Uganda's Relations with Britain 1895-1972. Makerere Political Science
Review, 1 (1), 110-134
An historical discussion of the influence of British policy at home
and in Uganda on the position of Asians in Uganda up to 1972. Also
comments on the impact of the Asian Question on relations between
Uganda and Britain, focusing mainly on citizenship, immigration and
the 1972 expulsion.
Mueller, A.L. (1965a). Some Non-economic Determinants of the Economic
Status of Asians in Africa. South African Journal of Economics, 33(1),
Suggests that social, cultural and religious customs and beliefs of
Asians in Africa, as well as friction between Asians and other racial
groups, have a direct bearing on the size and composition of the
labourforce and on the quality of productive services rendered by
economically active Asians. Singles out for closer inspection the
religious beliefs of Asians and discrimination against Asians.
Mueller, A.L. (1965b). The Economic Position of Asians in Africa.
South African Journal of Economics, 33 (2), 114-130
Draws attention to some of the salient features of Asian labour and
enterprise in Africa including characteristics of the labourforce,
income and unemployment.
Mullani, M.A. (1967). Asians in Tanganyika. B.A. Political Science
Dar es Salaam, University of East Africa.
Muller, M. (1981). The Policy of Kenyanization of Trade: Its Impact on
a Town in Kenya. Canadian Journal of African Studies, 15 (2), 293-301
The process and impact of Africanization on local business patterns
and patterns of demand in Kitale from 1969 to 1976. Suggests that in
small towns Africanization gave an opp ortunity for African small
business-people to gain an economic foothold.
Murray, R. (1978). The Chandarias: The Development of a Kenyan
Multinational. In R. Kaplinsky (Ed.), Readings on the Multinational
Corporation in Kenya (pp.284-307). Nairobi: Oxford.
One of the most successful East African Asian industrialists, whose
activities have become internationalized.
Musalia, W. (1996). Asians versus Africans in Kenya's Post-colonial
Economy. Eastern Africa Journal of Historical and Social Sciences
Research, 1 (1), 59-69
Mustafa, S. (1962). Tanganyika Way: A Personal Story of Tanganyika's
Growth to Independence. London: Oxford University Press.
Mustafa, S. (1966). Racial and Communal Tensions in East Africa. In P.
Fordham (Ed.), Racial and Communal Tensions in East Africa (pp.
52-57). East African Institute of Social and Cultural Affairs,
Contemporary African Monographs Series No.3. Nairobi: East Africa
Muyoba, A. (1986). The Asian Exodus From Uganda. L.L.B. dissertation,
Mwamba, Z. (1973). The Colonial Legacy: Uganda and the Asian
Expulsion. Black World, March, 40-47
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Nabende, J.S. (1996). The Political Economy of Education for Asians in
Kenya. Eastern Africa Journal of Historical and Social Sciences
Research, 1 (1), 48-58
Nagar, R. (1993). Indigenization Debate and Tanzanian Asians. Africa
World Review, May - October, 24-26
Nagar, R. (1995). Making and Breaking Boundaries: Identity Politics
Among South Asians in Colonial Dar es Salaam. Ph.D. thesis, University
of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
Nagar, R. (1996). The South Asian Diaspora in Tanzania: A History
Retold. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East:
A Journal of Politics, Culture, Economy, 16 (2), 1-19
Nagar, R. (1997a). Communal Places and the Politics Of Multiple
Identities: The Case of Tanzanian Asians. Ecumene: A Journal of
Environment, Culture, Meaning, 4 (1), 3-26
Nagar, R. (1997b). The Making of Hindu Communal Organizations, Places
and Identities in Post-colonial Dar es Salaam. Environment and
Planning D: Society and Space, 15, 707-730
Nagar, R. (1997c). The Politics of Gendered Boundaries: South Asian
Communities in Tanzania. Ghadar, 1 (1), 6-7 & 15
Also available at: www.proxsa.org/resources/ghadar/v1n1/richa.html
Nagar, R. (1998a). Communal Discourses, Marriage and the Politics of
Gendered Social Boundaries Among South Asian Immigrants in Tanzania.
Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, 5 (2),
Explains how communal discourses about religion, caste and race shape
gendered patterns of migration, marriage, and the everyday politics of
social boundaries amongst South Asians in Tanzania. Demonstrates how
discursive processes operating at the community level mediate between
the household and the broader political economic process. Also
illustrates that although discourses, boundaries and social relations
are easily modified in response to changing circumstances, new
narratives and ideologies frequently emerge to ensure the existing
balance of power is not disturbed significantly.
Nagar, R. (1998b). Contesting Social Relations in Communal Places:
Identity Politics Among South Asians in Dar es Salaam. With H.
Leitner. In R. Fincher & J. Jacobs (Eds.), Cities of Difference
(pp. 226-251). New York: Guilford Press.
Nagar, R. (2000a)."I'd Rather Be Rude Than Ruled": Gender, Place and
Communal Politics Among South Asian Communities in Dar es Salaam.
Women's Studies International Forum, 23 (5), 571-585
Nagar, R. (2000b). Religion, Race and the Debate Over Mut'a in Dar es
Salaam. Feminist Studies, 26 (3), 661-690.
Naik, B. (1997). Passage From Uganda. Southall: Naik and Sons.
Nair, M. (Director) (1991), Missipp i Masala. Released on video by
Colombia TriStar Home Video, 1992. (118 min.).
Mina (Sarita Choudhury) and her family live in a small town in
Missipp i, after being expelled from Uganda in 1972. Mina's romance
with Demitrius (Denzel Washington), a Black American, ignites a
confrontation between the two ethnic groups. Explores prejudice and
the complicated relationships that arise between minority groups.
Nair, S. (1995). Masala in the Melting Pot: History, Identity and the
Indian Diaspora. SAGAR: South Asia Graduate Research Journal, 2 (2)
Nambiar, K.N. (1968). The Commonwealth Immigrants Act, 1968 - Effect
on Asians in Kenya. Indian Journal of International Law, 8 (1), 56-62
Nanji, A. (1974). Modernization and Change in the Nizari Ismaili
Community in East Africa - A Perspective. Journal of Religion in
Africa, 6 (2), 123-139
Ismaili strategies via the constitutional development of the community
and response to political changes in East Africa, to create a modern
society while ensuring the continuity of essential identity and
Narain, P. (1977). Asians in East Africa: Some Reflections on
Historiography and Source Material. Nairobi: Historical Association of
Kenya Annual Conference Papers.
Narain, P. (1993). India - Africa Relations: Identification of Some
Source Material As Available in India. Transafrican Journal of
History, 22, 154-165.
Identifies types of material available in the National Archives of
India, New Delhi, private papers of relevance to East Africa, and
institutions in India involved with research on Africa.
Narayan, K.L. (c. late 1990s). Indian Diaspora: A Demographic
Available at: www.uohyd.ernet.in/klncsb.htm
Naseem. A.W. (1975). Nature and Extent of the Indian Enterprise Along
the East African Coast and Subsequent Role in the Development of
Kenya, 1840-1905. Ph.D. thesis, St. Johns University, New York.
An historical account beginning with the earliest Indian commercial
contacts with East Africa. Indian traders under the Portuguese, and
the Omanai and Indian traders. Zanzibar, including a discussion of
Jairam Sewji. Expansion of Indian commercial interests - Bagamayo,
Tharia Topan, the slave trade. Indians' role in opening and financing
interior trade, including Musa Mzuri. The Uganda Railway and the
development of Indian trade. Indians' participation in agriculture in
Nayenga, P. (1974). A Case Study of the Law Relating to Expulsion and
Nationlisation of Alien Property: The Case of Uganda. Uganda Law
Focus, 2, 100-126
A pro-expulsion article in which the author argues that the expulsion
and appropriation of expellees' property were not illegal in
international law. Accuses Asians of exporting cash and of
unwillingness to adapt to Ugandan culture. Provides examples of
previous expulsions of aliens from other countries and claims that the
ninety days allowed for Asians to depart was sufficient.
Nazareth, J. M. (1947). Immigration and the Immigration Bill. Forward,
Nazareth, J.M. (1960). Minority Rights in Kenya. Africa South, 4 (2),
Pre-independence proposals for protecting rights of Asians.
Nazareth, J. M. (1981). Brown Man Black Country: A Peep Into Kenya's
Freedom Struggle. New Delhi: Tidings Publications.
Barrister and politician. The book is dedicated to "The Indians of
Kenya. Owed So Much, Repaid So Ill." Part auto-biographical. Focuses
on the Political history of Kenya up to Independence, especially in
relation to the Asian community's struggle for equality of rights and
their relations with Africans and Europeans. Almost 100 pages of
appendices containing copies of documents, and the authors' speeches
Nazareth, P. (1970). In A Brown Mantle. Kampala/Nairobi/Dar es Salaam:
East Africa Literature Bureau.
Written before the 1972 expulsion. Predicted a military coup and
Asians might be expelled from Uganda sometime in the future.
Nazareth, P. (1984). The General Is Up. Toronto: Tsar.
Written after the expulsion. Conveys the Asian expulsion experience
in which Nazareth himself was a participant observer and victim.
Nazareth, P. (1990). The First Tanzan/Asian Novel. Research in African
Literatures, 21 (4), 129-134
Nazareth, P. (1994). The Asian Presence in Two Decades of East African
Literature. The Toronto Review, 13 (1), 17-32
Nazareth, P. (1997). Show Me The Way To Go Home. Review of Y.
Alibhai-Brown, No Place Like Home. The Toronto Review, 15 (2),
Neale, B. (1974a). Kenya's Asian Languages. In W.H. Whitely (Ed.),
Language in Kenya (pp.69-85). Nairobi: Oxford University Press.
Neale, B. (1974b). Language Use Among the Asian Communities. In W.H.
Whitely (Ed.), Language in Kenya (pp.263-317). Nairobi: Oxford
Nelson, D. (1971). Caste and Club: A Study of Goan Politics in
Nairobi. Ph.D. thesis, University of Nairobi.
Historical discussion beginning with the social system in rural Goa
and factors which stimulated emigration. Description of caste based
political units - social clubs and associations in rivalry with one
another. Impact of caste in isolating the relatively smaller Goan
community from other larger Asian communities in Nairobi.
Nelson, D. (1972). Problems of Power in a Plural Society: Asians in
Kenya. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 28 (3), 255-264
Nelson, D. (1973). Caste, Hierarchy and Competition in an Overseas
Indian Community. Contributions to Indian Sociology, 7 (1), 1-15
Ngari, L. (1996). The Origin of the Indian Question 1895-1923. Eastern
Africa Journal of Historical and Social Sciences Research, 1 (1),
Nichols, W.W. (1970). The Ismaili Sect in East Africa. Ufahamu, 1 (1),
applies a framework developed by Sopher to explore religion from a
geographical point of view. Focuses on Isamilis in East Africa, with
many references also to Bhoras. Includes patterns and processes of
Ismaili settlement; the Ismailis mostly urban orientation in East
Africa; impact on the landscape, including land use; Ismaili religious
and administrative organization; economic, social and political
Njogu, P.M. (1996). Asians in Kenya Politics: A Historical
Perspective. Eastern Africa Journal of Historical and Social Sciences
Research, 1 (1), 36-47
Nogel, R.J. (1973). Human Rights and Uganda's Expulsion of Its Asian
Minority. Denver Journal of International Law and Policy, 3 (1),
Noronha, F. (1972). Fifty Years: A History of Allidina Visram High
School, 1923-1972. Mombasa: Huseini Packaging and Printing.
Nowrojee, P. (2001). Asian-African Business - The National
Perspective. IFRA Les Cahiers, No. 20
Available at www.ifra-nairobi/lescahiers
Nwulia, M.D. (1966). Indians' Role in Uganda's Economy and Politics,
1900-1962, Ph.D. thesis, Howard University.
Nyaggah, M. (1974). Asians in East Africa: The Case of Kenya. Journal
of African Studies, 1 (2), 205-233
Nyamora, S.N. (1997). India - Kenya Relations in the Post Colonial
Era. Africa Quarterly, (3/4), 39-50
Nyanchoga, S.A. (1996). Asians in Post-colonial Kenya: A General
Perspective. Eastern Africa Journal of Historical and Social Sciences
Research, 1 (1), 70-83
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O'Brien, J. [pseud. Y. Tandon] (1972). Brown Britons: The Crisis of
Ugandan Asians. London: Runnymede Trust.
O'Brien, J. [pseud.Y. Tandon] (1973). General Amin and the Uganda
Asians: Doing the Unthinkable. Round Table, January, 91-104
Ocaya-Lakidi, D. (1975). Black Attitudes to the Brown and White
Colonizers of East Africa. In. M. Twaddle (Ed.), Expulsion of a
Minority: Essays on Ugandan Asians (pp. 81-98). London: Athlone Press.
Ogot, B.A. (1980). Introduction. In M. Singh (Ed.), Kenya's Trade
Unions 1952-56 (pp.i-vii). Nairobi: Uzima.
Includes a brief biography of Makhan Singh.
Okoth, P.G. (1989). Partners in Exploitation: The Case of Asians in
Kenya. Makerere Historical Journal, 4 (2), 20-34
Oloka-Onyango, J. (1987). Race, Class and Imperialism [Asians in
Uganda]. TransAfrica Forum, 5 Fall, 13-27
Oram, N. (n.d.). Why Indians Came to East Africa, mimeo, Kampala,
Makerere University, East African Institute of Social Research.
Oza, U.K. (c.1931). The Rift in the Empire's Lute, A History of the
Indian Struggle in Kenya from 1900 to 1930. Bombay: Advocate India
A booklet written by an Indian living in Kenya, recording the history
of the Indian struggle in Kenya during the early twentieth century.
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Pain, D. (1975). The Nubians: Their Perceived Stratification System
and its Relation to the Asian Issue. In M. Twaddle (Ed.), Expulsion of
a Minority: Essays on Ugandan Asians (pp. 177-192). London: Athlone
Pandit, S. (Ed.) (1963). Asians in East and Central Africa, Nairobi:
Introductory essays, biographies and profiles of many Asian owned
Pandurang, M. (1998), Boundaries and Belonging: A Socio-literary
Investigation of the East African Asian Diasporic Experience. Bombay:
The Asiatic Society.
Pandya, M. (1992). Home, Here We Come. New Delhi: Frank Educational
Pant, A.B. (1952). East African Indians and Indian Citizenship.
Pant, A.B. (1974). A. Moment in Time. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Autobiography of India's first Commissioner General in Eastern and
Central Africa. In Chapter 4, titled "African Encounters" Pant
discusses his concerns with respect to race relations. Viewed
Asian-African race relations as being intimately bound up with African
aspirations for Independence. Mentions Pant's own practical supp ort
for the establishment of multi-racial educational institutions. Pant
states his firm belief in the possibility of a multi-ethnic /
multi-cultural society in East Africa, but felt that this was
frustrated by Asian economic power.
Pant, A.B. (1987). Undiplomatic Incidents. Hyderabad: Sangam Books.
Chapter 1 includes reminiscences of Pant's diplomatic career in East
Africa, including recollections of meetings with Kenyatta, Koinange,
Kabaka Frederick Mutesa and European political figures. Pant describes
Pio Pinto Gama as "largely responsible for having prevented the wrath
of the Mau Mau from being vented on the Indian community".
Parker, M. (1951). Race Relations and Political Development in Kenya.
African Affairs. 50, 41-52 & 133
Parson, J. (1973). Africanizing Trade in Uganda: The Final Solution.
Africa Today, 20 (1), 59-72
Suggests economic roots originating in the early colonial period for
the 1972 expulsion. Asian business practices and the limited impact
of government efforts, beginning in the 1950s, to increase the
proportion of commerce in African hands. Considers various scenarios
regarding the likely effects of the expulsion on Uganda and Uganda's
relations with the rest of the world.
Patel A.B. (1954). Kenya's Future - An Asian View. Commonwealth
Challenge, 3 (1), 23-27
Patel, A.B. & Thakur, N.S. (Eds.) (1963). Struggle for 'Release
Jomo and His Colleagues'. Nairobi: New Kenya Publishers.
An anthology of statements criticizing Kenyatta's detention by the
British in the wake of the Mau Mau rebellion.
Patel, H.H. (1972a). Indians in Uganda: An Overview of their Political
Status. Paper presented at the Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the African
Studies Association, Philadelphia.
Focuses on Indian political status from the perspective of Indian
representation in Legco and the Parliament of Independent Uganda.
Conflict in the1920s and early 1930s over what constituted adequate
and fair representation; constitutional development; Indian
participation in the 1961 and 1962 elections; and post Independence
developments, including those affecting 'citizenship'.
Patel, H.H. General Amin and the Indian Exodus From Uganda. Issue: A
Quarterly Journal of Africanist Opinion, 2 (4), 12-22
Patel, H.H. (1973). Indians in Uganda and Rhodesia: Some Comparative
Perspectives on a Minority in Africa. Studies in Race and Nations, 5
(1), University of Denver, Centre on International Race Relations
Patel, H. (1974). General Amin and the Indian Exodus from Uganda.
Issue: A Quarterly Journal of Africanist Opinion, 2 (4), 12-22
Mainly covers the period December 1971 to November 1972, including
Amin's December 1971 Memorandum to Indians and the First and Second
Patel, H. (1975). The British Empire and Indians in East Africa. Paper
presented at the Conference of the African Studies Association of the
Patel, H. (1977). Race, Class and Citizenship in Uganda: Power,
Politics and the Indian Minority 1900-1972. Ph.D. thesis, University
of California Los Angeles.
Patel, K.H. (1996). Transition in Uganda: From Chaos to Stability.
Africa Quarterly, 36 (2), 19-27
Written by India's High Commissioner to Uganda from 1992 to 1994. A
discussion of India's relations with Uganda, including efforts by the
NRM Government to woo Indian investment.
Patel, K.T. (c.1979). In Search of Tomorrow. Bognor Regis: New
Patel, R.B. (1965). The Borrowing of Swahili Words in Spoken Gujerati.
Swahili, 35, 14-16
Patel, Z. (1997). Challenge to Colonialism: The Struggle of Alibhai
Mulla Jeevanjee for Equal Rights in Kenya. Nairobi: Publishers
Biography of A.M. Jeevanjee written by his grand-daughter. Detailed
discussion of colonial politics and race relations. appendix has the
full text of Jeevanjee's Presidential address delivered to the EAINC,
8th December 1920.
Patterson, J.H. (1979, first published 1907). The Man Eaters of Tsavo,
Patterson was an Indian Army officer and engineer in charge of
building the first section of the Uganda Railway from Mombasa, whose
writing suggests that he had considerable rapport with Indian railway
Pearson, M.N. (1998a). Port Cities and Intruders: The Swahili Coast,
India and Portugal in the Easrly Modern Era. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
Pearson, M.N. (1998b). Indians in East Africa: the Early Modern
Period. In R. Mukherjee & L. Subramanian (eds.), Politics and
Trade in the Indian Ocean World: Essays in Honour of Ashin Das Gupta
(pp.227-249). Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Pereira, C., Adams, B. & Bristow, M. (1978). Canadian Beliefs and
Policy Regarding the Admission of Ugandan Asians to Canada. Ethnic and
Racial Studies, 1 (3), 352-364
Pirouet, M.L. (1998). Welcoming the Ugandan Asians?, Multiculturalism
and the State Postgraduate Seminar Papers MCS/97/2. London: Institutes
of Commonwealth Studies and Education, University of London.
Plender, R. (1971). The Exodus of Asians From East and Central Africa:
Some Comparative and International Law Aspects. American Journal of
Comparative Law, 19 (2), 287-324
Plender, R. (1972a). The Expulsion of Asians: Legal Aspects. New
Community, 1 (5), 420-427
Plender, R. (1972b). The Uganda Crisis and the Right of Expulsion
Under International Law. The Review: International Commission of
Jurists, 9, December, 19-32
Argues that there are limitations on the generally recognized right
under international law of nations to expell alien residents, but that
these have frequently been ignored or abused. Summarizes the
provisions of Amin's expulsion decrees. Discusses historical
instances of legal limitations on individual and mass expulsions from
various countries. Concludes that the challenge for the future in the
area of human rights lies in creating institutions and procedures that
can preserve declared rights.
Pocock, D.F. (1955a). Indians in East Africa with Special Reference to
their Social and Economic Situation and Relationships. D.Phil. thesis,
Pocock, D.F. (1955b). The Role of Indians in East Africa. Times
British Colonies Review, Autumn, 23-24
Pocock, D.F. (1957a). The Basis of Faction in Gujarat. British Journal
of Sociology, 8, 295-306
Pocock, D.F. (1957b). Inclusion and Exclusion: A Process in the Caste
System of Gujerat. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 13 (1), 19-31
Pocock, D.F. (1957c). Difference in East Africa: A Study of Caste and
Religion in Modern Indian Society. Southwestern Journal of
Anthropology, 13 (4), 289-300
Pocock, D.F. (1958a). Indians in East Africa. Economic Weekly, July,
Pocock, D.F. (1958b). Race and Racism in East Africa. Economic Weekly,
Pocock, D.F. (1959). Slavery and Indo-Arab Relations in Nineteenth
Century Zanzibar. Economic Weekly, 165-172
Pocock, D.F. (1960). Generations in East Africa. Economic Weekly,
Pocock, D.F. (1964). The Ismaili Khojas of East Africa. Middle Eastern
Studies, 11 (4), 21-39
Polak, H.S. (1922). The East African Indian Problem. East India
Association, 12, 174-201
Posner, M. (1974). Violations of Human Rights and the Rule of Law in
Uganda. Berkley, University of California.
Part I deals with the expulsion of Asians from Uganda.
Postans, T. (1839/40). Some Account of the Present State of the trade
Between the Port of Mandvie in Cutch and the east Coast of Africa.
Transactions of the Bombay Geographical Society, III
Pradhan, S.D. (1991). Indian Army in East Africa 1914-1918. New Delhi:
National Book Organization.
Discusses the responsibility given to Force 'B' of the Indian Army of
capturing German East Africa. Describes this as one of the most
interesting campaigns of World War One because of the method of
warfare adopted by the Germans, which enabled them to pin down much
larger numbers of Allied troops in German East Africa for a period of
Prasad, A. (1963). People of Indian Origin in Uganda. Africa
Quarterly, 2 (4), 240-250
Overview of Indian settlement, social structure, commerce and
relations with Africans, including boycotts of Asian businesses.
Pratt. R. (1965). Review of D.P. Ghai and Y.P. Ghai (Eds.), Portrait
of a Minority: Asians in East Africa. The Journal of Modern African
Studies, 3 (4), 637-639
Preston, R. (1938). Oriental Nairobi, Nairobi: Nairobi Colonial
Compiled by an Anglo-Indian who was Chief Engineer on the Uganda
Railway from 1897 to 1903. The articles, which were mainly
contributed by the various Asian communities themselves, give an
interesting view of Asian life in Nairobi in the mid-1930s.
Preston County Social Services Department (1973). A Report on the
Resettlement of Ugandan Asians in Preston. Preston: Social Services
Department, County Borough of Preston.
Prunier, G. (1981). La Question Indienne en Ouganda 1896-1972. Ph.D.
Prunier, G. (1990). L'Ouganda et al Question Indienne 1896-1972,
Paris: Editions sur les Civilisations.
Explores the view that the position of the Asian population in
colonial and post- colonial Uganda and the expulsion can be explained
by a combination of factors common to all of Anglophone Africa and
unique to Uganda.
PTR (1972). Who are the Dispossesed of Uganda? Economic and Political
Weekly, December 9, 2407-2412
Report of a seminar organized by Bombay University on Amin's
expulsion order. Includes discussion of Asian roles in Uganda
commerce and British colonial government policy. See also the
rejoinder by Ramchandani and Mutalik-Desai.
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Qureshi, K. (1968). Kenyan Asians and the Commonwealth Immigrants Act,
1968. Pakistan Horizon, 21 (2), 134-146
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Rahimtulla Trusts (1986). The Rahimtulla Trusts. Nairobi.
Illustrated booklet containing the history of the Rahimtulla family
starting with Waljee Hirji who arrived in Mombasa in 1867, and the
Trust's philanthropic activities.
Rai, K. (1973). British Policy Towards Indians in Kenya. Journal of
Indian History - Golden Jubilee Volume, 909-914
Rai, K. (1979). Indians and British Colonialism in East Africa
1883-1939, Patna: B.K. Sinha for Associated Book Agency.
Rajwani, F.A. (1971). The Interaction Between the Indian Traders and
the Gusii in Kisii Township, 1908-1945. B.A. dissertation, University
Ramamurthi, T.G. (1996). A Multi-faceted Cooperation: Five Decades of
India-Uganda Relations. Africa Quarterly, 36 (2), 11-18
Places growing bilateral cooperation in historical perspective.
Discusses the policies of the NRM Government to encourage Asians to
invest in Uganda.
Ramchandani, R.R. (n.d.). Asians' Role in the Cotton Industry of
Uganda: A Study in Economic History. Kampala: Makerere Institute of
Social Research, Makerere University, Rural Development Research Paper
Ramchandani, R.R. (1965). Racial Conflict in East Africa with
Implications for People of Indian Origin: A Case Study of Uganda.
Mimeo. University of Delhi.
Ramchandani, R.R. (1969). The Role of the People of Indian Origin in
the Economic Development of Uganda, 1900-1962. Ph.D. thesis,
University of Delhi.
Traces Asian roles in the economic development of Uganda and the
emergence of anti-Asian feeling among Africans. Argues the need for
the role of people of Indian origin to be complementary to that of
indigenous Africans. Includes a detailed listing of material related
to East Africa held in the National Archives of India, Delhi, and in
the Bombay Record Office.
Ramchandani, R.R. (1972). Indian Emigration to East African Countries
During Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries. Journal of The
University of Bombay, XLI 77 November, 166-188
Ramchandani, R.R. (1973). The Economic Roots of Racial Friction in
Uganda. Economic and Political Weekly, 8 (52), 2301-2304
Ramchandani, R.R. (1976). Uganda Asians The End of an Enterprise: A
Study of the Role of the People of Indian Origin in the Economic
Development of Uganda and their Expulsion, 1894-1972, Bombay: United
Ramchandani, R.R. (1979a). Asians in East Africa. In B. Singh (Ed.),
The Other India. New Delhi: Arnold Heinemann.
Ramchandani, R.R. (1979b). Indian Emigration to East African Countries
from Ancient to Early Colonial Times. In C. Mehaud (Ed.), Mouvements
de Populations dans l'Ocean Indien (pp. 309-329), Paris: Librarie
Ramchandani, R.R. (Ed.) (1980a). India and Africa, New Delhi: Radiant.
Papers presented at a workshop at the Centre of East African Studies,
University of Bombay, October 1977.
Ramchandani, R.R. (1980b). Indians in East Africa: Past Experience
and Future Prospects. In R.R. Ramchandani (Ed.), India and Africa,
(pp. 171-194). New Delhi: Radiant.
Ramchandani, RR. & Biswas, A. (1990). India - Africa Economic
Relations: The Case of Bilateral Relations Between India and Kenya.
African Currents, 11, 58-85
Ramchandani, R.R. & Mutalik-Desai, P. (1973). Who are the
Dispossessed of Uganda? Rejoinder. Economic and Political Weekly,
January 6, 18-20
Rao, G.R. (1956). Indian Immigrants in Kenya - A Survey. The Indian
Economic Journal, 4, 33-42
Rao, V.D. (1973). The Habshis: India's Unknown Africans, Africa
Report, September-October, 35-38
Rattansi, P. & Abdulla, M. (1965). An Educational Survey. In Ghai,
D.P. & Ghai, Y.P. (Eds.) Portrait of a Minority: Asians in East
Africa (pp. 113-128). Nairobi: Oxford University Press
Rayner, W.R. (1934). The Settlement of Indians on the Margins of the
Indian Ocean. M.A. dissertation, University of London.
Chapter 1 discusses Indian emigration in general. Chapter 7 titled
"Indians in British East Africa" briefly discusses settlement and
commerce. Suggested that East Africa (and Burma) offered the greatest
potential for settling larger numbers of Indians.
Raza, K.G. (1977). Hindustani Mashriqi Afriqah me_n. Bamba'I: Vimal
Title: On Indians in East Africa (in Urdu)
Read J. (1972). Review of H.S. Morris, The Indians in Uganda. African
Affairs, 71 (1), 98-100
Read, J. (1975). Some Legal Aspects of the Expulsion. In. M.Twaddle
(Ed.), Expulsion of a Minority: Essays on Ugandan Asians (pp.193-209).
London: Athlone Press.
Examines the history of Asian citizenship status in Uganda, U.K.
legislation affecting immigration, and licensing and immigration laws
enacted in 1969 and 1970 by the Obote Government. Discusses Amin's
expulsion order and the administration of Asian property. Concludes
with thoughts on other African nations' racist policies.
Republic of Uganda (1968). Report of the Committee on Africanisation
of Commerce and Industry in Uganda. Entebbe: Government Printer.
Republic of Uganda (1969). Government Memorandum on the Report of the
Committee on Africanisation of Commerce and Industry in Uganda.
Sessional Paper No.1 of 1969. Entebbe: Government Printer.
Republic of Uganda (1994). Report of the Commission of Inquiry into
Violations of Human Rights: Findings, Conclusions, Recommendations.
Entebbe: Government Printer.
Section 8.8 "The Expulsion of Persons of Asian Origin Including
Citizens" includes the historical background to Uganda's Asian
population; Amin's decrees relating to the expulsion of Asians; and
the consequences of the expulsion.
Rice, S. (1923). The Indian Question in Kenya. Foreign Affairs, 2 (2),
Richmond, D. (1975). Middleman Minorities in African Political
Development: Kenya's Asians. Paper presented at the Annual Conference
of the Canadian Association of African Studies.
Ritchie, J.M. (1966). East Africa - Report of a Seminar on Islam in
Politics. Muslim World, 56, 296-303
Scattered references to Asians, including the missionary activities of
Rizvi, S.S. & King. N.Q. (1973). Some East African Ithna-asheri
Jamaats (1840-1967). Journal of Religion in Africa, 5, 12-22
Rizvi, S.S. & King, N.Q. (1974). The Khoja Shia Ithna- asheriya
Community in East Africa 1840-1967. Muslim World, 64 (3), 194-204
Describes the development and organization of the Ithna-asheri
communities along the coast of East Africa.
Robertson, B. (1921). Proposed Settlement of Indian Agriculturalists
in Tanganyika Territory. London: HMSO, Cmd. 1312
Robinson, V. (1982). The Assimilation of South and East African Asian
Immigrants in Britain. In D.A. Coleman (Ed.), Demography of Immigrants
and Minorities in the United Kingdom (pp. 143-168). London: Academic
After briefly discussing some of the external forces working towards
and against assimilation of migrants in Britain, identifies factors
affecting the relative adaptation of different sub-groups within the
South Asian minority living in the industrial town of Blackburn.
Based on surveys carried out in 1977 and 1978 concluded that South
Asians from East Africa were the least traditional of all of all of
the groups, experiencing relatively high degrees of acculturation,
integration and identification with British society.
Robinson, V. (1986). Transients, Settlers and Refugees: Asians in
Britain. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Robinson, V. (1993). Making it into the Middle Classes? Long-term
Resettlement of East African Asians in the U.K.. Journal of Refugee
Studies, 6 (3), 230-247
Robinson, V. (1995). The Migration of East African Asians to the U.K.
In R. Cohen (Ed.), The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, (pp.
331-336). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rogers, W.C. (1962). The Role of the Immigrant Communities in the New
Kenya. The Kenya We Want. Report of the Convention on Social and
Economic Development in the Emerging Kenya Nation, held in Nairobi,
Romero, P. (1987). Women and Gold in Lamu. Africa, 57 (3), 364-375
Discusses the Indian origin of the popularity of gold ornaments in
Lamu, including the influence of the Bohras and role of Hindu
Romjin, J. (1976). Tabu: Uganda Asians, The Old, The Weak, The
Vulnerable. London: London Council of Social Services.
Rothchild, D. (1965). African Nationalism and Racial Minorities. East
Africa Journal, 2 (8), 14-22
Rothchild, D. (1968). Kenya's Minorities and the African Crisis Over
Citizenship. Race, April, 421-437
Suggests that the decision not to allow dual citizenship was an
influential factor in the decision of the majority of non-Africans
not to seek Kenyan citizenship after Independence, despite assurances
that citizenship laws were completely 'non-racial' and urging by
local Asian and European leaders. Discuses variance between
'official' and 'non-official' views of citizenship captured in
questionnaires completed by 653 persons during 1966, which largely
regarded non-Africans who had adopted Kenya citizenship as being
motivated by convenience, rather than identification with the core
group. Argues the issue of citizenship in Kenya raised dilemmas for
Africans as well as non-Africans.
Rothchild, D. (1969). Ethnic Inequalities in Kenya. The Journal of
Modern African Studies, 7 (4), 689-711
Rothchild, D. (1970a). Citizenship and National Integration: The
Non-African Crisis in Kenya. Studies in Race and Nations, 1 No.3
1969-1970, Centre on International Race Relations, University of
Rothchild, D. (1970b). Kenya's Africanization Programme: Priorities of
Development and Equity. American Political Studies Review, 64 (3),
Rothchild, D. (1970c). Politics of Commonwealth Immigration: The Asian
Crisis. Paper presented at the 66th Meeting of The American Political
Rothchild, D. (1973a). Changing Racial Stratifications and Bargaining
Styles: The Kenya Experience. Canadian Journal of African Studies, 7
Rothchild, D. (1973b). Racial Bargaining in Independent Kenya: A Study
of Minorities and Decolonization. London: Oxford.
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admonition against isolating themselves from the African population.
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during the early 1920s campaign for rights.
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Concludes that Uganda's manufacturing output was 25 percent lower in
1973 than in 1972. The decline becomes even greater when one considers
what the hypothetical production for 1973 might have been without the
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of Kenya and Tanzania. Argues that rural as well as urban Ugandans
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Biography of a highly acclaimed news cameraperson, born in Kenya, the
son of an Indian railway worker.
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Colonial Era, 1900-1953. Ph.D. thesis, Makerere University.
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Children's fiction. Sumitra is torn between two cultures when her
family is forced to settle in London following the 1972 expulsion of
Asians from Uganda.
Sofer, C. (1953). Some Aspects of Race Relations in an East African
Town. Ph.D. thesis, University of London.
Sofer, C. (1954). Working Groups in a Plural Society. Industrial and
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Work-place relations in Jinja between Europeans, Asians and Africans.
Sofer, C. & Sofer, R. (1953). Recent Population Growth in Jinja.
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Sofer, C & Sofer, R. (1955). Jinja Transformed. Kampala: East
Africa Institute of Social Research, East African Studies, No.4
Demography, household characteristics, employment, living conditions
and voluntary associations of Jinja's African, Asian and European
Soff, H.G. (1968). Indian Influence on Kenya's Nyanza Province,
1900-1925. Journal of Indian History, 46 (3), 369-386
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Africa. Journal of Indian History, 50 (2), 573-596
Somjee, S. (1998). Asian African Heritage. Nairobi.
A paper delivered on the occasion of the launching of the fund for
the Asian African Heritage Trust Exhibition. Proposes that the Asian
Question could be summarized in the 1990s as being concerned with
"Who are you and why are you here?" Argues that it is important for
descendants of early Asian settlers in East Africa to possess a
strong sense of and to be proud of their Asian African identity.
Spencer, C. (1962). Claim to Freedom: The Rise of Afro-Asian Peoples.
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Spencer, I.R. (1975). The Development of Production and Trade in the
Reserve Areas of Kenya, 1895-1929. Ph.D. thesis, Simon Fraser
Spencer, I.R. (1981). The First Assault on Indian Ascendancy: Indian
Traders in the Kenya Reserves, 1895-1929. African Affairs, 80 (320),
Stereotypes and accusations levied against Indians in East Africa.
Government efforts to undermine the almost total monopoly position
that Indians had secured in the reserve areas, by increasing
encouragement given to African merchants and by controlling or
replacing Indians as buyers of African produce. Suggests administrators
were less concerned about perceptions of Indian dishonesty,
than of Indians as poor role models and agents for development.
Srivastava, J.C. (1970). India's Trade with East Africa. Africa
Quarterly, 10 (2), 121-129
Steel, D. (1969). No Entry. London: Hurst and Co.
Background to the Commonwealth Immigration Act of 1968 and its
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Statistics; and a copy of the agreement reached between the Indian
and United Kingdom Governments in July 1968.
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Political History. Rhodesia History, 1, 1-8
Proposes a four-phase model of Asian-Africa interaction in the
colonial period. Asians, being more numerous and cohesive in Kenya
were accorded more political representation than in Rhodesia.
Rhodesian Asians made a significant contribution to African political
aspirations and were important in forming the multi-racial character
of the 1950s partnership period.
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Mimeo, University of Dar es Salaam.
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A study, carried out mainly in Wandsworth and Slough, examining the
impact of the migration to Britain of Asians expelled from Uganda,
both on the Ugandan Asians themselves and trhe British host
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Tandon, Y. (1973b). The Expulsion From Uganda: Asian's Role in East
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Begins with numerous quotes from the international press condemning
the expulsion. Reviews the history of Asians in East Africa. Argues
that the expulsion had become inevitable not just because Asians were
a racially distinct minority, but also a functionally distinct
economic class performing a middleman role. Criticizes the paralysis
of the international community when confronted by events of this kind.
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Chronological discussion of Africa-Asian relations during the period
of British colonial rule. Asian opp osition to White demands for self-government
in the early 1920s. Asian supp ort for African interests in matters
concerning land, formation of political parties and political
representation. Role of Asian political leaders, including Isher
Dass, Chanan Singh, Makhan Singh and P.G. Pinto. Suggests reasons for
the dichotomy between what most Asians felt about African nationalism
and the public stand that Asian leaders took, and for African
hostility towards Asians.
Tangri, R.K. (1967). Early Asian Protest in East Africa, 1900-1918.
Africa Quarterly, 7 (2), 153-167
Tejani, B. (1971). Day After Tomorrow. Nairobi: East Africa Literature
Tejani, B. (1974). Farewell Uganda. Transition, 45, 64-66
A personal, post-expulsion account of the difficulties faced by Asians
in East Africa up to the expulsion. The author discusses his own
family history and childhood, and reasons for his bitter feelings
towards the expulsion.
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Biography of the son of a Punjabi Muslim railway worker, who became a
world- renown cameraman.
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The Goan Community of Tanzania (ed.) (1992). 100 Years Souvenir,
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Theroux, P. (1967). Hating the Asians. Transition, 33, 46-51
Anti-Asian stereotypes in East Africa; citizenship; Kenyan Government
attitudes Towards Asians; Asian emigration from East Africa.
Theroux, P. (1968). Fong and the Indians. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Fictional account of the life of a Chinese immigrant in Kampala and
his dealings with Asians.
Thomas, H.B. (1961). Review of L.W. Hollingsworth, The Asians of East
Africa. Uganda Journal, 25 (1), 119
Thomas, H. & Scott, R. (1935). The European and Asian Communities.
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Thurston, A. (1979a). The Formation of a Character - An Interview With
Joseph Murumbi. Kenya Past and Present, 10, 17-21.
Former Vice-president of Kenya. Includes description of his Goan
Thurston, A. (1979b). Emergence of a Nationalist - An Interview With
Joseph Murumbi, Part II. Kenya Past and Present, 11, 23-28
Thurston, A. (1980). Independence - An Interview With Joseph Murumbi
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Committee, Friends House.
Tilbe, D. (1972). The Ugandan Asian Crisis. London: British Council of
Churches, Community and Race Relations Unit.
Tinker, H. (1975). Indians Abroad: Emigration, Restriction and
Rejection. In M. Twaddle (Ed.), Expulsion of a Minority: Essays on
Ugandan Asians (pp. 15-29). London: Athlone Press.
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British Commonwealth, 1920-1950. London: C. Hurst & Co.
Tinker, H. (1977). The Banyan Tree: Overseas Emigrants from India,
Pakistan, and Bangladesh. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Asians in Nairobi. Scottish Geographical Magazine, 85, 141-149
Tolmacheva, M. (1994). Reviews of R.G. Gregory, South Asians in East
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Fall of Philanthropy in East Africa: The Asian Contribution. African
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Tominaga, C. (1989). Merchants of the Indian Ocean and the Jetha Lila
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Tominaga, C. (1992). Higashi-afurika no Indo-Jin-Tayosei no Sentaku.
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In Japanese. Title: Indian Immigrants in East Africa: Choosing
Tominaga, C. (1996). Indian Immigrants and the East African Slave
Trade. Senri Ethnological Studies (Osaka, National Museum of
Ethnology), 43, 295-317
Uses British Foreign Office correspondence and contemporary records to
explore Indians' role in the slave trade during the nineteenth
century. Focuses mainly on Zanzibar. Also includes discussion of the
more recent situation of Asians in Tanzania, using results of a field
survey conducted by the author in Dar es Salaam during 1988.
Tribe, M. (1975). Economic Aspects of the Expulsion of Asians From
Uganda. In M. Twaddle (Ed.), Expulsion of a Minority: Essays on
Ugandan Asians (pp. 140-176). London: Athlone Press.
Surveys the post-colonial Uganda economy, including Asian employment,
Asians' economic power, and the critical state of the economy at the
time of Amin's coup. Also makes a detailed and balanced assessment of
the economic effects of the expulsion.
Twaddle, M. (Ed.) (1975a). Expulsion of a Minority: Essays on Ugandan
Asians, London: Athlone Press.
Twaddle, M. (1975b). Was The Expulsion Inevitable? In M. Twaddle
(Ed.), Expulsion of a Minority: Essays on Ugandan Asians (pp. 1-14),
Twaddle, M. (1990). East African Asians Through a Hundred Years. In C.
Clarke et al. (Eds.), South Asians Overseas (pp. 149-163). London:
Oxford University Press.
Overview focusing mainly on the twentieth century. Settlement,
commerce, pacemaker role of Ismailis, colonial government policy and
its contribution to the position of Asians in Independent East African
nations. Identifies tendencies in research about Asians and East
Africa and offers suggestions for further research.
Twaddle, M. (1995a). The Settlement of South Asians in East Africa. In
R. Cohen (Ed.), The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, (pp, 74-76).
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Asian Politics in East Africa. The Journal of African History, 36 (2),
Twaddle, M. (1997). Sentongo and the Indian Question in East Africa.
History in Africa, 24, 309-336
The role of expatriate Ugandan clerks and artisans resident in
Nairobi in attacks on Indians in the 1920s in Kenya. Foremost amongst
these was Z.K. Sentongo, editor of Sekonyolya, a monthly newspaper in
Luganda that first appeared in December 1920.
Twaddle, M. (2001). The Development of Communalism Among East African
Asians. In C. Bates (Ed.), Community, Empire and Migration: South
Asians in Diaspora (pp. 109-122). Basingstoke, New York: Palgrave.
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Udani, R.J. (1928). Our Countrymen in Kenya. Indian Review, 29,
Uganda Resettlement Board (1973). Interim Report. London: HMSO.
Uganda Resettlement Board (1974). Final Report. London: HMSO.
UNHCR (1973). How They Did It: Resettlement of Asians From Uganda in
Europe and North America. Geneva: UNHCR
Also appears in Lalani (1997), pp. 163-177.
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van den Berghe, P.L. (1968a). An African Elite Revisited. Mwazo, 1
Based on a survey conducted among 130 African and 25 Asian students
of the University of East Africa (Makerere and Nairobi) during 1967.
Compares African and Asian students opinions on a wide range of
matters, including identification, education, and aspirations.
Reveals a very high level of anti-Asian racism amongst the African
van den Berghe, P.L. (1968b). Racial Attitudes in East Africa. East
Africa Journal, 5 (9), 7-13.
Based on the article in Mwazo by the same author.
van den Berghe, P.L. (1970). Asians in East and South Africa: A
Comparison. In D.P. Ghai & Y.P. Ghai (Eds.), Portrait of a
Minority: Asians in East Africa (pp. 151-171). Nairobi: Oxford
van den Berghe, P.L. (1975). Asian Africans Before Independence.
Kroniek van Afrika, 3, 193-197
While recognizing the heterogeneity of Asian communities in Africa,
identifies structural constraints facing middlemen minorities and
common adaptive responses to these constraints. Suggests reasons why
middlemen minorities retain their ethnic identity rather than
assimilate. Argues that efforts to explain the lives of Asians in
Africa have focused mainly on characteristics of Asians themselves,
with insufficient recognition of the role played by colonial and
post-colonial political and economic structures.
Van Hear, N. (1998). New Diasporas: The Mass Exodus, Dispersal and
Regrouping of Migrant Communities. London: UCL. Press.
Includes discussion of the 1972 expulsion from Uganda, Uganda Asian
diaspora, and tentative return of Uganda's Asians.
Varghese, M.N. (1974). The Asians in Kenya: Some Historical
Perspectives on the Asian Dilemma Aftger Independence with Special
Reference to the East African Indian National Congress. Paper
presented at the Conference of the Canadian Association of African
Varghese, M.N. (1976). The East African Indian national Congress, 1914
to 1939: A Study of Indian Political Activity in Kenya. Ph.D. thesis,
Vassanji, M.G.(1989). The Gunny Sack. London: Heinemann.
Vassanji, M.G. (1992). No New Land. London: Penguin.
Vassanji, M.G. (1995). Book of Secrets. London: Macmillan
Vasey, E.A. (1956). Economic and Political Trends in Kenya. African
Affairs, 55 (219), 101-108
Written by a former Minister for Finance and Development in Kenya.
Includes references to the economic and political position of Asians.
Vazquez, M.C. (2000). Hearts in Exile. A Conversation With Moses
Isegawa and Mahmood Mamdani. Transition, 86, 126-50
Vedalankar, N. (1975). Araya Samaj and Indians Abroad. New Delhi:
Savadeshik Araya Pratindhi Sabha.
Vellani, M. (1987). History of the Ismailis in Zanzibar. Africa
Visram, M.G. (1987). Red Soils of Tsavo. Nairobi: General Printers
Autobiography, beginning when two brothers moved from Uganda in 1957
to take over a sisal plantation near Voi that their father had bought
in 1947. Also published as 'On a Plantation in Kenya'.
Visram, M.G. (1990). Allidina Visram: The Trail Blazer. Nairobi:
General Printers Ltd.
Voigt-Graf, C. (1998). Asian Communities in Tanzania: A Journey
Through Past and Present Times. Hamburg African Studies Series No. 7.
Hamburg: Institute of African Affairs.
Based on fieldwork conducted in Dar es Salaam during 1995 for an M.A.
dissertation. Overview of Asian population of Tanzania including their
migration history, community life, political and economic situation,
race relations and involvement in transnational networks.
Vyas, B.O. (1979). Dharatina Khapparamam abha:
Yuganda-vasahati-ucchedani Acheri Jhalaka. Ahmedabad: Bharati Sahitya
A collection of articles in Gujarati on the expulsion of Asians from
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Wainaina, S. (1987). Allidina, Opening Up Kenya. Msafiri, 1 (1).
Wainwright, D. (1972). Resettlement: The Educational, Industrial and
Social Background of the Ugandan Asians. London: Runnymede Trust.
Waiz, S.A. (Ed.) (1927). Indians Abroad. Bombay: The Imperial Indian
A reprint of fifteen bulletins issued by the Imperial Indian
Citizenship Association from time to time. approximately one-third of
the book is devoted to East Africa.
Waldorf, W.A. (1977). A Comparison of Savings Rates in Uganda:
Africans, Asians, Europeans. Journal of Development Studies, 13 (3),
Walji, P. (1980a). The Asians: A Minority in Transition. Nairobi:
Department of Sociology, Nairobi University, Seminar Paper No.40
Walji, P. (1980b). The Relationship Between Socio-Economic Conditions
and Fertility Behaviour Among Selected Asian Groups in Nairobi. Ph.D.
thesis, University of Nairobi.
Walji Moloo, P. (1996). Women's Position and Fertility: The Case of
the Asians in Kenya. In R. Palriwala & C. Risseeuw (Eds.),
Shifting Circles of Supp ort: Contextualizing Gender and Kinship in
South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa (pp. 221-246). Walnut Creek CA: Alta
Walji, S. (1969). Ismailis on Mainland Tanzania 1850-1948. M.A.
dissertation, University of Wisconsin.
Walji, S. (1970). Business Enterprise and Leadership in the Ismaili
Community, 1914-1968. Seminar paper, University of Dar es Salaam.
Walji, S. (1974). A History of the Ismaili Community in Tanzania.
Ph.D. thesis. University of Wisconsin.
Establishment and development of the Khoja Ismaili community in
Tanzania, covering roughly the period of the Aga Khan III (1885-1957).
At the time of writing Ismailis comprised the single largest Asian
community in Tanzania. Views Ismailis in Tanzania as a national
community of political and geographical limits and as a religious
community not limited by geography and politics. A chronological
discussion beginning with factors that provided the impetus for
Ismaili migration to East Africa; German and British colonial rule.
Describes how the development of the typical economic pattern in which
many Ismailis took on a middleman role, was soon followed by attempts
to abandon the mercantile role to attempt farming. Discusses the
emphasis given to education as a way of revitalizing the Ismaili
Wallace, T. (1975). U.K. Passport Holders in Kenya - The End of an
Era. London: Runnymede Trust, on behalf of the U.K. Immigrants
Wamala, I. (1972). Amin and the Asians. Third World, 1 (2), 5-8
Wandsworth Council for Community Relations, Uganda Resettlement Unit
(1973). Uganda Asians in Wandsworth. London.
Warah, R. (1992). Hurdles to Meaningful Integration of Asians in
Kenya. Wajibu, 7 (3), 12-14
Warah, R. (1998). Triple Heritage: A Journey to Self-Discovery,
Nairobi: Communication Concepts Limited.
Ward, R.H. (1972). The Decision to Admit: A Note on Governmental
Attitudes to Immigration. New Community, 1 (5), 428-434
Ward, R.H. (1973). What Future For the Uganda Asians? New Community, 2
Watkins, O. (1923)."The Indian Question" in Kenya. Fortnightly
Review, July, 95-103
Watt, W.M. (1966). The Political Relevance of Islam in East Africa.
International Affairs, 12 (1), 35-44
Includes references to the economic and political position of
Ismailis in East Africa, and to the East African Muslim Welfare
Weir, S., Dines, M., McCart, M. & Kumar, S. (1973). Uganda Asians:
One Year Later. New Community, 2 (4), 379-388
Westin, C. (1977). Ankomsten: Asiater Fren Uganda Kommer Till Sverige.
Westin, C. (1986). Encounters - The Uganda Asians in Sweden.
Whitehouse, G.C. (1948). The Building of the Kenya and Uganda Railway.
Uganda Journal, 12 (1), 1-16
Wilkinson, I. (1974). Uganda Asians in Leicester: Initial
Resettlement. New Community, 3 (1-2), 147-149
Wolf, J.B. (1972). Asian and African Recruitment in the Kenyan Police,
1920-1950. Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the African
Studies Association, Philadelphia.
Wolf, J.B. (1973). Asian and African Recruitment in the Kenya Police,
1920-1950. International Journal of African Historical Studies, 6 (2),
Woodhead, E.W. & Harper, G.C. (1958). Report on Asian and European
Education in Kenya. Nairobi: Government Printer.
Wooldridge, F. & Sharma, V.D. (1975). International law and the
Expulsion of Ugandan Asians. International Lawyer, 9 (1), 30-76
Discusses the citizenship status of Uganda Asians, expropriation of
Asian property and international legal principles surrounding the
expulsion. Concludes that the expulsion highlighted a number of flaws
in international laws with respect to human rights and the
expropriation of property. A shorter version of this paper appears as
Sharma & Wooldridge (1974).
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Yambert, K.A. (1981). Alien Traders and Ruling Elites: The Overseas
Chinese in Southeast Asia and the Indians in East Africa. Ethnic
Groups, 3 (3), 173-198
Youe, C.D. (1978). The Threat of Settler Rebellion and the Imperial
Predicament: The Denial of Indian Rights in Kenya, 1923. Canadian
Journal of History, 7 (3), 347-360
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Zarwan, J. I. (1975a). The Social and Economic Network of an Indian
Family Business in Kenya 1920-1970. Kroniek van Afrika, 3, 219-236
Genral background and micro-analysis of two related Halari Visa Oshwal
families, focusing on the role of social networks, particularly of
caste and kin, in economic activities.
Zarwan, J.I. (1975). Review of A. Bharati, Asians in East Africa.
International Journal of African Historical Studies, 8, 297-300
Zarwan, J.I. (1976a). Indian Businessmen in Kenya During the Twentieth
Century. Ph.D. thesis, Yale University.
Focuses on two family groups in the Halari Visa Oshwal community and
the relationship between social networks, particularly those of caste
and kin, and economic activities. The two families chosen were in the
middle range of the Indian population in terms of income, size of
business and education. One family had always been based in Mombasa.
The second family first settled in Nairobi and Kisumu and later moved
to Mombasa when their business expanded. Provides insights into the
structure of Asian businesses in Kenya including the costs of doing
business, ownership of assets, and sources of credit and business
information. appendices contain some detailed tables relating to the
Oshwal community, Asian immigration and emigration, and Asian
employment and commerce.
Zarwan, J.I. (1976b). Social Evolution of the Jains in Kenya. Hadith,
Zarwan, J.I. (1977). Kinship, Community and Business: A Study of
Indians in Kenya. Paper presented at the Joint Annual Meeting of the
African Studies Association and Latin American Studies Association,
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